Chapter 7

107 terms by nixm01

Study  only

Flashcards Flashcards

Scatter Scatter

Scatter Scatter

Create a new folder

Continuous spectrum

a continuous color pattern that is separated from a beam of sunlight passing through a prism.

Line spectrum

a spectrum containing only discrete lines of different colors

Electromagnetic spectrum

consists of electromagnetic radiation of different wavelengths (or frequencies)

1/s

Amplitude

the height of a wave

The amplitude of light determines what?

Brightness (the larger the amplitude, the brighter the light)

Wavelength

the crest-to-crest distance between waves

It's color

Frequency

the number of complete cycles the light wave makes per second

λ

v

(v) x (λ) = c

c =

speed of light in a vacuum

3.0 x 108 m/s

higher

lower

10-9

10-6

10-9

10-6

Hertz (Hz)

Meters (m)

m/s

Quantum Theory

energy of electromagnetic radiation is quantized (consisting something continuously)

Electromagnetic radiation can only be emitted or absorbed in small packets of energy called what?

Quantum or photons

"Quantum" or "photons"

smallest quantity of energy

E = hv

When finding energy of quantum (or photon), what does h stand for?

Planck's constant (6.63 x 10-34 J-s

When finding energy of quantum (or photon), what does v stand for?

Frequency of the radiation

What is the consistant property of the numbers when stating how much evergy is absored or emitted in quantums (or photons)?

They are whole-number multiples of hv (Ex: 2 or 3, not 1.67 or 4.98)

When calculating the energy of a photon (quantum), what equation is used to find frequency?

v = c/λ (frequency = the speed of light / wavelength of radiation

n is used to represent what?

The number of a particular orbital

The orbit number (n) is found by looking at what?

The period (or row) number on the periodic table (1-7, going down)

higher

Lower

Where are the electrons when it is said to be in an excited state?

Further away from the nucleus

Orbital

region inside an atom where electrons are most likely to be found 90% of the time

What is the difference between an orbit and an orbital? Which one does an electron follow?

orbit is a direct path of an electron around a specific atom. an orbital is a region where the electron is most likely to be found. All electrons follow an orbital (other than Hydrogen)

Ground

According to Bohr's explanation of the atomic spectra of Hydrogen, explain the energy absorbed or released when an electron stays in an orbit (ground state or excited state)

no energy will be emitted

According to Bohr's explanation of the atomic spectra of Hydrogen, explain what happens when an electron jumps from an orbit with a higher energy to an orbit with a lower energy

energy will be emitted in the form of electromagnetic radiation

According to Bohr's explanation of the atomic spectra of Hydrogen, what is determined by the energy difference between the final state and the initial state?

The frequency (or wavelength) of the electromagnetic radiation

Hydrogen

Which model best describes how the electrons really exist in an atom: Bohr Model or Quantum Mechanical Model?

Quantum Mechanical Model. (Bohr's model only holds true for Hydrogen)

It is impossible to simultaneously determine the exact ____________ and the exact ___________ of a subatomic particle.

position and velocity

Why can we only determine probability of the velocity and location of an electron?

Electrons have wave-like behaviors

The four quantum numbers describes what?

Describes the electrons and the atomic orbitals that they are in

n, l, ml and ms

When determining quantum numbers, what does 'n' stand for?

Principal quantum number - The number of a particular orbitals

When determining quantum numbers, what does principal quantum number (n) determine?

The energy and size of the orbital

When determining quantum numbers, what does 'l' stand for and what does it determine?

Angular Momentum Quantum Number - The shape of the orbitals

0-3

0

0,1

0,1,2

0,1,2,3

What are electron shells?

A collection of orbitals with the same principal quantum number (n)

When determining the quantum number 'l', what are the orbitals assigned to each possible l value?

0=s, 1=p, 2=d, 3=f

What are sub-shells?

A type of orbital (s, p, d, f, etc.) within a principal energy level

How are the sub-shells found and how do you express them?

Given n and l values, sub-shells can be designated with a number and a letter

When determining quantum numbers, what does 'ml' determine?

The orientation of the orbital in space

The value of 'ml' is limited by the value of what other quantum number?

'l' (angular momentum quantum number)

What are all the possible values of 'ml'?

-1, 0, 1+ (when only dealing with main elements)

s

p

d

f

What are the possible values for the 's' sub-shells?

0 (contains 1 orbital)

What are the possible values for the 'p' sub-shells?

+1, 0, -1 (contains 3 orbitals)

What are the possible values for the 'd' sub-shells?

+2, +1, 0, -1, -2 (contains 5 orbitals)

What are the possible values for the 'f' sub-shells?

+3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3 (contains 7 orbitals)

When determining quantum numbers, what does 'ms' indicate?

Direction of electron spin

+1/2

-1/2

The value of 'l' is limited by the value of what other quantum number?

'n' (principal quantum number)

atomic orbital

1

3

5

5

What is the difference between an electron shell and a sub-shell?

shell is when electrons have same value of 'n', sub-shell is when electrons have same values of 'n' and 'l'

What are the three rules for electron configuration?

1) electrons occupy lower-energy orbitals first before occupying higher-energy orbitals. 2) (Pauli exclusion principle) no more than two electrons can occupy one orbital and two electrons in the same orbital must have opposite direction of spins. 3) (Hund's Rule) the most stable arrangement of electrons in the same subshell has the largest number of unpaired electrons, all with the same direction of spon

Valence electrons

electrons in the outermost electron shell of an atom

Core electrons

the electrons in the inner electron shells of an atom

What are the electron configuration designated orbital letters of the periodic table?

Columns 1 and 2 = s orbital, columns 2 through 8 = p orbital, transition metals = d orbitals

10

6

2

Same

Increases

Decrease

Smaller

Larger

True

Why are Cations smaller than their corresponding neutral atoms?

Because neutral atoms lose electrons to form cations

Why are Anions larger than their corresponding neutral atoms?

Because neutral atoms gain electrons to form anions

Electrostatic

Ionic

Transferred

Non-metals

Hydrogen

What is the formula used to find the formal charge of an atom?

(# of valence e-) - (# of lone pair e-) - ½(# of bonding electrons)

Singe bond

two atoms share one pair of electrons (each single bond has 2 electrons)

Double bond

two atoms sharing two pairs of electrons (each double bond has 4 electrons) - shorter and stronger than single bond

Triple bond

two atoms sharing three pairs of electrons (each triple bond has 6 electrons) - shorter and stronger than double bond

Resonant Structures

all the possible structures when two or more Lewis structures can be drawn for the same compound with multiple bonds

Example:

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrometo use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Create Set