### Continuous spectrum

a continuous color pattern that is separated from a beam of sunlight passing through a prism.

### Electromagnetic spectrum

consists of electromagnetic radiation of different wavelengths (or frequencies)

### The amplitude of light determines what?

Brightness (the larger the amplitude, the brighter the light)

### Electromagnetic radiation can only be emitted or absorbed in small packets of energy called what?

Quantum or photons

### When finding energy of quantum (or photon), what does h stand for?

Planck's constant (6.63 x 10-34 J-s

### What is the consistant property of the numbers when stating how much evergy is absored or emitted in quantums (or photons)?

They are whole-number multiples of hv (Ex: 2 or 3, not 1.67 or 4.98)

### When calculating the energy of a photon (quantum), what equation is used to find frequency?

v = c/λ (frequency = the speed of light / wavelength of radiation

### The orbit number (n) is found by looking at what?

The period (or row) number on the periodic table (1-7, going down)

### When an electron is in an orbit further away from the nucleus, it has a(n) _________ energy than when it is in an orbit closer to the nucleus.

higher

### When an electron is in an orbit closer to the nucleus, it has a(n) _________ energy than when it is in an orbit further away from the nucleus.

Lower

### What is the difference between an orbit and an orbital? Which one does an electron follow?

orbit is a direct path of an electron around a specific atom. an orbital is a region where the electron is most likely to be found. All electrons follow an orbital (other than Hydrogen)

### When an electron is in the orbit closes to the nucleus, it is said to be in the __________ state.

Ground

### According to Bohr's explanation of the atomic spectra of Hydrogen, explain the energy absorbed or released when an electron stays in an orbit (ground state or excited state)

no energy will be emitted

### According to Bohr's explanation of the atomic spectra of Hydrogen, explain what happens when an electron jumps from an orbit with a higher energy to an orbit with a lower energy

energy will be emitted in the form of electromagnetic radiation

### According to Bohr's explanation of the atomic spectra of Hydrogen, what is determined by the energy difference between the final state and the initial state?

The frequency (or wavelength) of the electromagnetic radiation

### Which model best describes how the electrons really exist in an atom: Bohr Model or Quantum Mechanical Model?

Quantum Mechanical Model. (Bohr's model only holds true for Hydrogen)

### It is impossible to simultaneously determine the exact ____________ and the exact ___________ of a subatomic particle.

position and velocity

### Why can we only determine probability of the velocity and location of an electron?

Electrons have wave-like behaviors

### The four quantum numbers describes what?

Describes the electrons and the atomic orbitals that they are in

### When determining quantum numbers, what does 'n' stand for?

Principal quantum number - The number of a particular orbitals

### When determining quantum numbers, what does principal quantum number (n) determine?

The energy and size of the orbital

### When determining quantum numbers, what does 'l' stand for and what does it determine?

Angular Momentum Quantum Number - The shape of the orbitals

### When determining the quantum number 'l', what are the orbitals assigned to each possible l value?

0=s, 1=p, 2=d, 3=f

### How are the sub-shells found and how do you express them?

Given n and l values, sub-shells can be designated with a number and a letter

### When determining quantum numbers, what does 'ml' determine?

The orientation of the orbital in space

### The value of 'ml' is limited by the value of what other quantum number?

'l' (angular momentum quantum number)

### What are all the possible values of 'ml'?

-1, 0, 1+ (when only dealing with main elements)

### What are the possible values for the 'd' sub-shells?

+2, +1, 0, -1, -2 (contains 5 orbitals)

### What are the possible values for the 'f' sub-shells?

+3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3 (contains 7 orbitals)

### The value of 'l' is limited by the value of what other quantum number?

'n' (principal quantum number)

### What is the difference between an electron shell and a sub-shell?

shell is when electrons have same value of 'n', sub-shell is when electrons have same values of 'n' and 'l'

### What are the three rules for electron configuration?

1) electrons occupy lower-energy orbitals first before occupying higher-energy orbitals. 2) (Pauli exclusion principle) no more than two electrons can occupy one orbital and two electrons in the same orbital must have opposite direction of spins. 3) (Hund's Rule) the most stable arrangement of electrons in the same subshell has the largest number of unpaired electrons, all with the same direction of spon

### What are the electron configuration designated orbital letters of the periodic table?

Columns 1 and 2 = s orbital, columns 2 through 8 = p orbital, transition metals = d orbitals

### Why are Cations smaller than their corresponding neutral atoms?

Because neutral atoms lose electrons to form cations

### Why are Anions larger than their corresponding neutral atoms?

Because neutral atoms gain electrons to form anions

### What is the formula used to find the formal charge of an atom?

(# of valence e-) - (# of lone pair e-) - ½(# of bonding electrons)

### Double bond

two atoms sharing two pairs of electrons (each double bond has 4 electrons) - shorter and stronger than single bond

### Triple bond

two atoms sharing three pairs of electrons (each triple bond has 6 electrons) - shorter and stronger than double bond