The Nations of SE Asia
Myanmar (formerly Burma), Cambodia (renamed briefly during Communist seizure of country in 1975 to Kampuchea), Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam on mainland
On islands: Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Indonesia includes more than 13,500 islands Philippines includes more than 7,000 islands.
chain of islands
early civilization, grew along Irrawaddy River in present Myanmar, approximately 849 AD, control of fertile rice growing areas -> rulers of Pagan (rich powerful) taken over by Mongol armies from China in 1287,
ruler of Pagan Kingdom during eleventh century (1000's), brought Buddhism to his people, this resulted from the introduction of Buddhism from monks in the Mon kingdom who lived south of Pagan, this seizure of religion caused Pagan to be interconnected to Buddhist centers in India and Sri Lanka
after Mongol invasion of 1287 of Pagan it became a tributary state and recognized the superiority of the Chinese emperor by paying tributes to him by 1400 Burma threw off Chinese rule
located in the Red River delta, it also came under Chinese domination in AD 39 the Trung Sisters, daughters of Vietnamese noble led the struggle against invaders. They freed 65 towns from Chinese rule. Chinese rule of Vietnam lasted for more than 1,000 years. During that time, Chinese culture greatly influence the language, poetry, art and customs of Vietnam. Vietnam regained independence in 939
AD 39 the Trung Sisters, daughters of Vietnamese noble led the struggle against invaders. They freed 65 towns from Chinese rule, they were eventually killed by a Chinese general
among the most powerful kingdoms in SE Asia. Controlled the Mekong River delta in present day Cambodia and southern Vietnam. By AD 85 they'd build a prosperous kingdom. Had connections with India for centuries, from whom they learned government and literature. Their language was based from Indian scripts. Their engineers build canals for their water systems and reservoirs. These prevented flood during the rainy season and stored water. By the 1100's King Suryavarman II built Angkor, their vast capital
Built by the 1110's by King Suryavarman II, it was a vast capital city dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu, their ruins survive today. Its golden age was brief. 1177: the Cham people attacked and looted the rich city. The Cham continued their attacks throughout the next century. Khmer would again build a strong kingdom when they founded a new capital dedicated to a new protector, Buddha. (Under the rule of King Jayavarman VII) Although Hindu elements remain in the culture, this was part of a large scale conversion from Hinduism to Buddhism
Straights of Malacca
has been a vital waterway since ancient times, shortest water route btwn Pacific and Indian oceans, Chinese junks, Arab dhows, South Sea outriggers sailed it. Attracted to the Spice Islands, Europeans like the Spanish and Portuguese established large trading empires in these islands. Today Malaysian cities of Kuala and Lumpur and George Town are major ports on the strait. They export rubber, copra, and tin
people of Thailand have roots in several early kingdoms, descended from Tai (group including Thai), Shan, Black Thai, and Red Thai peoples.
By the 1200's the Tai kingdoms of Lanna had become powerful. Mongols invaded SE Asia in 1287. Weakened Khmer, Burmans and Mon, allowed Tai to expand 1782: Chakkiri family set up Thai dynasty with capital at Bangkok who are still recognized today
1782: Chakkiri family set up Thai dynasty with capital at Bangkok who are still recognized today
the belief that spirits live in the natural world, practiced by Balinese. often blended with already present religions
Religions of SE Asia
Hinduism: earliest world religion to influence the region, spread by Indian traders, many have blended Hindu gods with their own spirits and beliefs, accepted Hindu belief of reincarnation, rejected ideas like rigid caste system, Hinduism later declined, found in Bali and parts of Malaysia.
Buddhism: far greater impact than Hinduism, missionaries carried religion eastward, Theravada Buddhism took root in Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia. Local people built monasteries, and Buddhist traditions shaped their culture. Boys entered a monastery at an early age. Learned to read/write/become monks.
Chinese Buddhists lead to the spread of Mahayana Buddhism's presence in Vietnam. they believe ordinary people and monastics can attain enlightenment. They too believe men and women can achieve nirvana. buddhist influence remains in SE Asia strongly, people often blend with animism Islam and Christianity have also spread predomiantely in those random island places
rice grown in wet ponds requires flat land + large amounts of water they soak the rice fields/paddies, before planting the seedlings the paddies remain soaked until almost harvest time usually requires the labor of an entire family
utilizes method of slash and burn farming which is hard on land
clay bricks, concrete and bamboo, someon stilts, 50- 200 families, leaders inherit positions or are elected into positions they supervise village work
most are nuclear except for Vietnam which is predominately extended in nature. Women have more equality than in other regions of Asia, children receive a primary education
imported in Strait of Malacca???
Actually never mind it's late, what the hell,
VELOCIRAPTOR> NICOLAS CAGE ALL THE WAY
never mind its dried coconut meat thats an important source of oil soap and margarine, but demanded decreased and varies inversely with concern of saturated fats
evil spirits whose anger was believed to be the cause of disease
spirits in natural world