This hormone's main target is the kidney and it decreases Na+ excretion and causes water retention and increased blood pressure.
Aldosterone is regulated by ___________ ___________ system involving kidney and liver.
Main organ that regulates aldosterone. Part of the afferent arteriole wall.
Macula densa cells
These cells are part of the distal convoluted tubule wall and located next to juxtaglomerular cells
Juxtaglomerular apparatus secrete ________ ________ that ultimately regulate aldosterone.
mean arterial pressure
A drop in this is sensed by baroreceptors and triggers a sympathetic response.
Drop in Afferent Arteriole Blood Pressure is directly sensed by _________ __________ in juxtaglomerular cells.
Drop is Na+ reabsorpt
Glomerular Filtration Rate.
If there is less blood going to the kidney, less Na and water reabsorbed, this will lead to a drop in __________ __________ ________.
Macula densa cells
Drop is Na+ reabsorption in distal convoluted tubules is sensed by __________ __________ _____________.
Renin acts on __________ which is a large protein made by the liver and already circulating in high concentration in the blood.
Angiotensinogen is the substrate for renin and renin acts on it to produce _____________(.
Having Renin in the ________ _________, aids in the rapid conversion of Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II.
Angiotensin II increases __________ ___________. Thus a target of 40% of blood pressure medications.
Angiotensin II directly causes increased cardiac output + increased __________ ___________ = increased blood pressure
Angiotensin II indirectly acts on adrenal gland to stimulate secretion of ______________
Amount of _______ _________ present is limited by amount of Na available to Na+/K+ pump.
Mechanism of maintaining BP has little effect on ________ __________ b/c Na and water are moved along together.
Once synthesized, AVP is packaged into ___________ _________ and transported down axons to posterior pituitary.
AVP is synthesized in two populations of cells, ___________ and ____________ neurons.
Antidiuresis is mediated through high affinity _______ receptors in the kidney at _______ levels of ADH. (day to day regulation).
Vasoconstriction is mediated by lower affinity ___ receptors that require _________ levels of ADH to be activated.
If collecting duct is impermeable to water, you get ____________ urine. (When you are hydrated)
ADH _________ permeability of collecting ducts to water. Resulting in _________ urine.
In the collecting ducts, water reabsorbed from filtrate by __________, is leaving concentrated urine
Collecting duct epithelial cells contain vesicles with HIGH concentration of _______ (water channels)
Secretion of ADH causes __________ of vesicles with aquaporins. (Their contents get dumped out of the cell)
After exocytosis, aquaporin loaded membranes are incorporated into the cell membrane. This greatly _________ ___________ to H2O.
__________ is secreted by cells in the atrium of the heart and opposes the actions of aldosterone.
Activation of stretch receptors in atrium indicates ___________ (too much blood volume)
ANF vasodilates __________
Reduces sympathetic stimulation of __________________. (calms it down)
Reduces sympathetic stimulation of _________ ____________ so it does not activate to oppose its actions.
glomerular filtration rate, aldosterone, AVP
ANF Increases ______________ ________________ _______________ by relaxing the afferent arterioles - more Na+ and water removed & it directly inhibits ____________secretion by the adrenal gland
Inhibits ____________ secretion by the posterior pituitary.