Ch. 13

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Chromosomes, Mapping, and the Meiosis-Inheritance Connection

Map

A genetic ______ contains the distance between the gene loci measured in terms of the frequency of recombination.

Autosomes

Of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes, 22 pairs are similar in the location of genes and are found in both males and females. These are called ______.

Sex-linked

Traits that are carried on the X chromosome are said to be ___-___

Cystic fibrosis

A fatal human disease in which the faulty gene codes for abnormal gland secretions leading to liver and lung failure is called _______

Hemophilia

The clotting of blood depends upon a chain of reactions that involve many different proteins; a faulty gene for any one of these proteins gives rise to a diseas called _______.

On a different chromosome

One of the main reasons genes assort independently of one another is that they are ________.

Crossing over

Organisms generally have many more genes that assort independently than the number of chromosomes. This phenomenon is due to ______.

Sutton

The theory of chromosomal inheritance was first proposed by ______.

X

In Drosophila, the sex of an individual is influence by the number of copies of _______ chromosome.

X

The white eye mutation in Drosophila was shown to be sex-linked and caused by a gene residing on the _______ Chromosome.

Morgan

The geneticist who discovered the white eye mutation in Drosophila and helped establish that genes are carried on chromosomes was ______.

Crossing over

Genetic exchange between two arms of a chromosome pair is more likely to occur if the distance between the genes is great. It is called ______.

Nondisjunction

Occationally, chromosomes fail to seperate during meiosis, leading to a condition in which the diploid number is not normal. This phonomenon is called ______.

Monosomics

Humans who have lost even one copy of an autosome are called ______.

21

The most common condition of trisomy, in which three copies of a chromosome are present instead of the normal two, is of chromosome ______.

Barr

If a human female has two ______ bodies, it is almost certain that she developed from a fertilized egg with 3 X chromosomes.

X

A human female with only one ______ chromosome is said to have a condition called Turners syndrome.

Genetic disorder

If some alternative alleles with detrimental effects exist in significant proportions in populations, the condition is called a ______.

Cystic fibrosis

The most common fatal genetic disorder of Caucasians is ______.

Single

In sickle cell anemia, the defective hemoglobin differs from the normal hemoglobin by a ______ amino acid substitution.

Recessive

Hemophilia is a ______ condition (in terms of dominance).

Huntingtons disease

______ is a human hereditary disease that is caused by dominant a allele but does not show up in the affected individuals until they are in middle age.

Genetic disorder

Amniocentesis is a procedure that is normally used for diagnosis of ________.

50

If a female was a carrier for sex-linked color blindness, ______ percentage of her childeren would also be color blind.

Male, Female

In humans, the male has an X and Y sex chromosome. The human female has two X chromosomes. In Birds, the female has a Z and a W sex chromosome while the male has two Z chromosomes. Therefore in humans the ______ controls the gender of the offspring, and in birds the ______ controls the gender.

Hemoglobin

Sickle cell anemia is caused by a defect in the oxygen carrying pigment ______.

1

A normal human female cells contain ______ Barr bodies.

Test

A ______ cross can be used to do all of the following; determine whether an individual that displays a dominant phenotype is homozygous for the trait, determine whether an individual that displays a dominant phenotype is heterozygous for the trait, and gather genotype information from phenotype information.

Individuals

Genetic differences between ______ in a population are called polymorphisms.

Female, Y

In humans, if a nondisjunction event led to an individual with a genotype of XO, they would be _____ (sex) because they do not have a _____ Chromosome.

Male, Y

In humans, if a nondisjunction event let to an individual with a genotype of XXY, they would be ______ (sex) because they do not have a ______ chromosome.

Temperature

You are a herpetologist studying snapping turtles. You house the turtles in an incubator set at 22 degrees C. After a period of time you find that some new baby trutles have hatched. Interestingly, all of the baby turtles are male. Based on this observation, you hypothesize that sex-determination in turtles is influenced by ______, but you need more data to be sure.

Chorionic villi

Pretend you are a medical doctor, a 39 year od woman is in her sixth week of pregnancy comes to you seeking help. Due to her advanced maternal age, she is at high risk for having a baby with Down's syndrome. She would like to find out as early as possible whether or not her baby has Down's syndome. As her doctor you suggest that she have a ______.

Corn

The classic experiments performed by Creighton and McClintock in ______ (also known as Maize) provided evidence for the physical exchange of genetic material.

Genetic imprinting

A same sex couple wants to have a child in which they both contribute genetically to the offspring. Assuming it was technically possibe to replace the DNA found in a sperm with female DNA, or DNA found in the egg with male DNA, the scientific obstacle of ______ must be overcome.

Heterozygous

Over time, natural selection eliminates individuals with detrimental phenotypes from a population. However, there are several exmples in the human population in which harmful genetic polymorphisms are maintained. The reason for that, ______ individuals have some other advantage over individuals with two wild type alleles.

Female

If a XY individual had a deletion of the SYR gene, they would develop as a _____.

X, Episttic, Female

In calico cats which are a genetic mosaic; the different colored fur is due to the inactivaion of one ______ chromosome, the variation in coat color is an example of an ______ interaction, and the calico cats are ______ (sex).

Female

If an XY individual had a genetic disorder in which they were insensitive to androgens, their genotype and phenotype would be XY, ______ (sex).

Mitochondrial

Human offspring will inherit all their ______ DNA from their mother and none from their father.

(SNP's) single necleotide polymorphisms

You are a forensic technician working on a DNA sample obtained from a crime scene. Your job is to compare the unknown DNA sample with know DNA samples collected from five different suspects. Preliminary analysis using only a few DNA markers revealed that the unknown sample could possibly match two of the suspects. After consulting the case file, you find out that these two suspects are brothers (but not twins). You realize that you will have to do a more detailed analysis on the samples so that you can distinguish between the brothers and determine which brothers' DNA matches the unknown sample, ______ will help you distinguish between the two suspects.

1:2:1, 1:3

In Drosophila, the mutant recessive alleles for brown eyes (bw)and heavy wing vein (hv) are closely linked. The normal wild type alleles, bw+ and hv+, are both dominant and result in red eyes and thin wing veins, respectively. Flies homozygous for bw are crossed to flies homozygous for heavy wing vein hv to obtain doubly heterozygous F1 progeny. Given that bw and hv are closely linked, you would expect to find a ________ genotypic ratio in the F2 generation and a phenotypic ratio of ______ brown, heavy: ______red, thin.

15

A deletion of a particular stretch of chromosome ______ can cause either Prader-Willi syndrome or Angelman syndrom, depending on the parental origin of the normal and deleted chromosome.

Increase, increase

The relationship between recombination frequency and true genetic distince on a chromosome is such that as genetic distance ______, the recombination frequency first ______ in a linear fashion, but then levels off to a frequency of 0.5.

Trait

In genetics, a characteristic that has alternative forms, such as purple or white flower color in pea plants or different blood type in humans.

Gene

The basic unit of heredity; a sequence of DNA nucleotides on a chromosome that encodes a protein, tRNA, or rRNA molecule, or regulates the transcription of such a sequence.

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