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Father of Forensic Toxicology

Mathieu Orfila

Father of Anthropometry

Alphonse Bertillion

Father of Fingerprinting

Francis Galton

Father of Bloodstain Identification

Leone Lattes

Father of Ballistics

Calvin Goodard

Father of Document Examinations

Albert Osborn

Father of Microscopic Forensics

Walter McCrone

Father of the Crime Lab

Edmond Locard

The oldest forensic lab in the US

LAPD

The scientist who maintained that when a criminal came in contact with an object or person a cross transfer of evidence would occur

Edmond Locard -Contact Theory

How many public crime labs operate throughout the US?

350

Name the 4 basic services provided by "full-service crime labs"

Physical Science, Biology, Photography, Firearms

What are the basic functions of a Forensic sciencist

Expert testimony, analysis of physical evidence, training

Name the optional services provided by "full-service crime labs"

Toxicology, fingerprint analysis, voice analysis, CSI

Name 4 special forensic sciences services available to Law enforcement community

ontology, entomology, pathology, engineering, psychiatry

The examination of human skeletal remains and its relation to a criminal investigation is known as

Anthropology

The study of poisons and drugs and their effect on human and animal population

Toxicology

A systematic procedure of taking a series of body measurements is called

Antropometry

The current system of crime labs in the US is best described as

Centralized

The science that deals with the motions, behavior and efforts of projectiles most often firearms and bullets is called

Ballistics

In forensics the use of lie detector is done in the field of

Polygraphy

A serious crime such as a murder, punishable by more than one year of imprisonment up to execution is called

Felony

A ____ evaluates evidence based on knowledge, specialized training and experience

Expert Witness

A minor crime less than a felony, usually punished with a fine of confinement other than in prison

Misdemeanor

The examination of blood, hairs, fibers and vegetative materials is the function of which unit of crime lab?

Biology Unit

Which specialty of forensics deals with accident reconstruction, involvement of mechanical items and assists in determining responsible parties?

Engineering

The standard guideline for determination the judicial admissibility of scientific examination stemmed from which court ruling

Frye vs. US

What is the study of dental features, bite marks to identify a victim when the body is otherwise unidentifiable called?

Odontology

_____ are composed of large numbers of atoms arranged in repeating units

polymers

______ are polymers composed of thousands of amino acids linked in a highly organized arrangement and sequence

protein

A computerized database that allows an analyst to obtain information relative to an individual's DNA profile is

CODIS

in a gun barrel causes distinctive grooves, indentations and scratches upon fired bullets, which can be matched to the weapon that fired them.

rifling

When an object is broken, torn, or cut, two unique edges are formed which are called as

Fracture Line

A general rule the deceased body will lose heat at a rate of:

1-1.5 degrees per hour

The amount of _________ in the vitreous humor helps in estimating the time of death.

Potassium

What type of scientist studies skeletal remains?

Anthropologist

An example of a type of evidence that might be identified using a fracture mark is

glass, tape, paper

A forensic ___________ is a computerized archive of information relating to a specific type of physical evidence

Database

When evidence can be associated only with a group and never with a single source, that evidence is said to possess:

class characteristics

The likelihood of finding class physical evidence is ________ the likelihood of finding physical evidence with individual characteristics.

greater than

Post Mortem changes that cause a body to loose heat is called

Algor Mortis

_____________can be used to exonerate or exclude a person from suspicion if the standard reference sample (control) does not share characteristics with evidence at the crime scene.

Physical Evidence

_____characteristics are properties of evidence that can be attributed to a common source.

individual

Evidence of tampering with the position of a body after death can be obtained by evaluating _____________& ____________.

Livor Mortis and Algor Mortis

__________characteristics are properties of evidence that can be attributed only with a group.

class

The post mortem examination performed on a corpse to determine the cause and manner of death is called ________.

Autopsy

Evidence with individual characteristics can lead to a determination of common origin (single source).Which type of evidence CANNOT yield such results?

individual

A component of the National Integrated Ballistics Information Network is called

IBIS

The stiffness of death is called as __________

Rigor Mortis

CODIS

Combined DNA Index System

GSR

Gunshot residue

PDQ

Paint Data Query

AFIS

Automated Fingerprint Identification System

IBIS

Integrated Ballistics identification system

The average fingerprint has approximately how many individual ridge characteristics?

150

The International Association for Identification concluded that the minimum number of friction ridge characteristics which must be present in two impressions in order to establish positive identification is:

No minimum

Whorls are divided into how many distinct groups?

4

What is the basis for the determination of the primary classification of fingerprints?

the presence or absence of whorl patterns

For most fingerprint examiners, the chemical method of choice for visualizing latent prints is:

Ninhydrin

What was the original fingerprinting system adopted by Scotland Yard in 1901 which converted ridge patterns on all 10 fingers into a series of letters and numbers arranged in the form of a fraction?

Henry System

he first textbook written on the subject of fingerprints, and which was called Finger Prints, was written by:

Francis Galton

Attempts at changing one's fingerprints by trying to obscure them has led to:

the possibility of permanent scarring which only provides new characteristics for identification purpose since it is impossible to obliterate all ridge characteristics.

The oldest chemical method used to visualize latent prints is:

Iodine Fuming

A technique for visualizing latent fingerprints on non-porous surfaces by exposing them to cyanoacrylic vapors is:

SuperGlue Fuming

Which term refers to a print found at a crime scene?

Latent Fingerprint

Points on a fingerprint where ridge characteristics changes are called ____ and they help us match prints.

Minutiae

What is another term for a fingerprint?

Dactologram

The fingerprints that have one or more ridges that enter from one side of the print, re-curve, and exit from the same side are

Loop

The fingerprints that have ridge patterns that are generally rounded or circular and have 2 deltas is called

Whorl

The fingerprints formed by ridges entering from one side of the print, rising slightly and exiting on the opposite side are called

Arches

The most common type of fingerprint pattern is the

lOOP

How many minutiae points must be in common in order for prints to be considered matches?

No minimum

What was the original fingerprinting system adopted by Scotland Yard in 1901 which converted ridge patterns on all 10 fingers into a series of letters and numbers arranged in the form of a fraction?

Henry System

The boundary between the epidermis and dermis of the skin that determines the form and pattern of ridges on the surface of the skin is called

Dermal Epiphele

The study of uniqueness of friction ridge structures and their use of personal identification

Dactology

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