Chemistry Chapter 5

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38 terms

The fixed energies an electron can have

Energy Levels

The amount of energy used to move energy levels

Quantum

The region of space where there is a high probability of finding an electron

Orbital

The way electrons are arranged in various orbitals

Electron Configurations

Electrons occupy the lowest energy level first

Aufabu Principle

An orbital can have at most two electrons

Pauli Exclusion Principle

electrons must be evenly placed before doubling up

Hund's rule

Height of a wave

Amplitude

Distance between crests

Wavelength

number of wave cycles in any given time

Frequency

units of frequency, reciprocal of seconds

Hertz

Different frequencies separate into colors

Spectrum

the frequencies of light emitted by an element separate into discrete lines

Atomic emission spectrum

lowest possible energy level

Ground state

Light quanta or particles

Photons

it is impossible to know the velocity and position of the particle at the same time

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Atoms are tiny indestructible particles with no internal structure

Dalton

"plum pudding" model, electrons are embedded in a sphere of positive charge

Thompson

small dense positively charged nucleus, electrons orbit around

Rutherford

electrons orbit at fixed distances

Bohr

electron cloud model

Schroedinger

half the distances between the nuclei of two atoms

Atomic radius

an atom or a group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge

Ion

an ion with a positive charge

Cation

an ion with a negative charge

Anion

the energy required to remove and electron from an atom

Ionization Energy

an atom's ability to attract electrons when it's a compound

Electronegativity

Group 1A

Alkali metals

Group 2A

Alkali Earth metals

Group 7A

Halogens

Group 8A

Noble gases

all A groups excluding the noble gases

Representative elements

D block

Transition metal

F block

Inner Transition metal

when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties

Periodic law

Good conductors of heat and electricity

Metals

Poor conductors of heat and electricity

Nonmetals

Has properties similar to both metals and nonmetals

Metalloid

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