Biology Chapter 9 Study Guide

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Chromosomes

threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes

Microtubules

straight, hollow tubes of proteins that give rigidity, shape, and organization to a cell

Microfilaments

fine, threadlike proteins found in the cell's cytoskeleton

Cell membrane

a thin membrane around the cytoplasm of a cell, controls what goes in and out of the cell

Centrioles

two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope, help organize cell division

Nucleus

a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA. controls all cellular activity.

Parent cell

original cell before cell division

Daughter cell

a cell formed by the division or budding of another cell

Cell cycle

the cycle of growth and reproduction of a cell

Interphase

cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases

Mitosis

cell division in which the nucleus divides

Cytokinesis

the final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the two new cells

Gap 1

The first part of interphase: the cell grows and functions. Also known as G1

Synthesis

2nd stage of Interphase. A celll prepares for the division of its nucleus, the cell also takes inventory and makes sure it is ready to continue to mitosis.

Gap 2

The third part of interphase: the cell prepares for interphase. Also known as G2.

Eukaryotic

cells that have a nucleus

Prophase

first and longest phase of mitosis,
- the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus

Metaphase

second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell

Anaphase

the third phase of mitosis,
the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles

Telophase

fourth and final phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes begin to disperse into a tangle of dense material

Spindle fibers

protein structures which move the chromosomes during cell division.

Centriloes

function: involved in cell division in animal cells- found in pairs near the nucleus- composed of microtubule rings

Chromatids

two identical chromosomes that split and contain the same genetic material

Centromere

The region that joins two sister chromatids

Cyclins

proteins that regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells

Cancer

any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division

Tumor

a clump of cells

Apoptosis

cell suicide. programmed cell death

Stem cells

Cells that are unspecialized that can develop into specialized cells when under the right conditions

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