Chemistry 1 Honors Midterm

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Chemistry

The study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter, the processes that matter undergoes, and the energy changes that accompany these processes.

Mass

The measure of the amount of matter. The measurement you make using a balance.

Matter

Anything that has mass and takes up space.

Compound

A substance that can be broken down into simple stable substances. Each is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded.

Extensive properties

Depend on the amount of matter that is present. Include: Volume, mass and the amount of energy in a substance.

Intensive properties

Do not depend on the amount of matter present. Include: Melting point, boiling point, density, and ability to conduct electricity and to transfer energy.

Physical Property

A characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance.

Physical change

A change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance. For example: Grinding, cutting, melting and boiling a material.

Change of state

A physical change of a substance from one state to another.

Solid

Matter that has a definite volume and definite shape.

Liquid

Matter that has a definite volume but an indefinite shape.

Gas

Matter that has neither a definite volume nor a definite shape.

Plasma

A high-temperature physical state of matter in which atoms lose most of their electrons, particles that make up atoms. An important fourth state of matter. Found in fluorescent bulbs.

Chemical Property

A substance's ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances.

Chemical Change or Chemical Reaction

A change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances.

Products

The substances that are formed by the chemical change.

Reactants

The substances that react in a chemical change .

Mixture

A blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains its own identity and properties.

Homogeneous

Mixtures that are uniform in composition. They have the same proportion of components throughout.

Solutions

Another name for homogeneous mixtures.

Heterogeneous

A mixture that is not uniform throughout.

Groups or Families

The vertical columns of the periodic table.

Periods

The horizontal rows of elements in the periodic table.

Metal

An element that is a good electrical conductor and a good heat conductor.

Nonmetal

An element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity.

Metalloid

An element that has some characteristics of metals and some characteristics of nonmetals.

Scientific Method

A logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and formulating theories that are supported by data.

System

A specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation.

Hypothesis

Testable statement

Controls

During testing, the experimental conditions that remain constant.

Variable

Any condition that changes.

Model

More than a physical object; it is often an explanation of how phenomena occur and how data or events are related. They may be visual, verbal or mathematical.

Theory

A broad generalization that explains a body of facts or phenomena.

Quantity

Something that has magnitude, size, or amount. (Not the same as a measurement.)

Weight

A measure of the gravitational pull on matter.

tera

10 to the twelfth power

giga

10 to the ninth power

mega

10 to the sixth power

kilo

10 to the third power

hecto

10 to the second power

deka

10 to the first power

meter, liter, gram

10 to the zero power

deci

10 to the -1 power

centi

10 to the -2 power

milli

10 to the -3 power

micro

10 to the -6 power

nano

10 to the -9 power

pico

10 to the -12 power

femto

10 to the -15 power

atto

10 to the -18 power

Area formula

length x width

Volume formula

length x width x height

Density formula

mass divided by volume

Molar Mass formula

Mass divided by the amount of substance

Molar volume formula

Volume divided by the amount of substance

Energy formula

force x length

Volume

The amount of space occupied by an object.

Density

The ratio of mass to volume, or mass divided by volume.

Conversion Factor

A ratio derived from the equality between two different units that can be used to convert from one unit to the other.

Dimensional Analysis

A mathematical technique that allows you to use units to solve problems involving measurements.

Accuracy

Refers to the closeness of measurements to the correct or accepted value of the quantity measured.

Precision

Refers to the closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity made in the same way.

Percentage Error

Calculated by subtracting the accepted value from the experimental value, dividing the difference by the accepted value, and then multiplying by 100.

Significant Figures

In a measurement, consists of all the digits known with certainty plus one final digit, which is somewhat uncertain or is estimated.

Scientific Notation

Numbers written in the form M x 10 to the nth power, where the factor M is a number greater or equal to 1 but less than 10 and n is a whole number.

Directly Proportional

Dividing one quantity by another gives a constant value.

Inversely Proportional

Multiplying one quantity by another gives a constant product.

Law of conservation of mass

States that mass is neither created nor destroyed during ordinary chemical reactions or physical changes.

Law of definite proportions

That fact that a chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass, regardless of the size of the sample or source of the compound.

Law of multiple proportions

If two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, then the ratio of the masses of the second element combined with a certain mass of the first element is always a ratio of small whole numbers.

Atom

The smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element. All consist of two regions. The nucleus is a very small region located at the center.

Nucleus

A very small region located at the center of an atom. In every atom, it is made up of at least one positively charged particle called a proton and usually one or more neutral particles called neurons. Surrounding this very small region is a region occupied by negatively charged particles called electrons. This region is very large compared to it.

Subatomic Particles

Refers to protons, neutrons and electrons.

Nuclear Forces

Short-range proton-neutron, proton-proton, and neutron-neutron forces that hold the nuclear particles together.

Atomic Number

The number of protons of each atom of that element. (Z)

Isotopes

Atoms of the same element that have different masses.

Mass Number

The total number of protons and neutrons that make up the nucleus of an isotope.

Nuclide

A general term for a specific isotope of an element.

Atomic Mass Unit

A unit of mass that describes the mass of an atom or molecule; it is exactly 1/12 of the mass of a carbon atom with mass number 12. (Abbreviation, amu)

Average atomic mass

The weighted average of the atomic masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element.

Mole

The amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12 g or carbon - 12. Abbreviated mol.

Avogadro's number

The number of particles in exactly one mole of a pure substance. 6.022 x 10^23

Molar Mass

The mass of one mole of a pure substance.

Electromagnetic Radiation

A form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space. Visible light is a kind.

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Together, all the forms of electromagnetic radiation.

Wavelength

The distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves.

Photoelectric effect

The emissions of electrons from metal when light shines on the metal.

Quantum

The minimum quantity of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom.

Photon

A particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass and carrying a quantum of energy. The energy depends on the frequency of the radiation.

Ground State

The lowest energy state of an atom.

Excited State

A state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than it has in its ground state.

Line-emission Spectrum

When a narrow beam of the emitted light was shined through a prism, it was separated into four specific colors of the visible spectrum. Continuous Spectrum

Continuous Spectrum

The emission of a continuous range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

States that it is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and the velocity of an electron or any other particle.

Quantum Theory

Describes mathematically the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles.

Orbital

A three-dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an elecron.

Quantum Numbers

Specify the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals.

Principal Quantum Number

Symbolized by n, indicated the main energy level occupied by the electron.

Angular Momentum Quantum Number

Symbolized by l, indicated the shape of the orbital.

Magnetic Quantum Number

symbolized by m, indicated the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus.

Spin Quantum Number

Has only two possible values - (+1/2, -1/2) - which indicate the two fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital.

Electron Configuration

The arrangement of electrons in an atom.

Aufbau Principle

An electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it.

Pauli Exclusion Principle

No two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers.

Hund's Rule

Orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin state

Noble Gases

One of the elements of Group 18 of the periodic table. (helium, Neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon): Noble gases are unreactive.

A Noble Gas Configuration

An outer main energy level occupied, in most cases, by eight electrons.

Chemical

Any substance that has a definite composition or is used or produced in a chemical process.

Element

An element is composed of one kind of atom.

Compounds

Made from two or more elements in fixed proportions.

SI

This system of measurement is used in science. It has seven base units: the meter (length), kilogram (mass), second (time), kelvin (temperature), mole (amount of substance), ampere (amount of current), and candela (luminous intensity).

Derived Unit

A unit of measure that is a combination of other measurements.

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