an organization that nominates and runs candidates for public office under its own label
a group that is part of a larger political entity. based on personality, philosophy, or geographical region.
defined political parties in terms of three distinct elements:
party in the electorate, party in government, party in organization
party in the electorate
ordinary citizens who identify with the party and who usually support the party's candidates with votes and campaign contributions
party in government
elected and appointed officeholders at the national, state, and local levels who are considered representatives of the party...often don't use their political powers to pursue common policies
made up of party professionals who hold official positions within the party and other people active in running and maintaining the party's organizational apparatus. Carry out major campaign activities of the party.
Party Professionals and Policy-Motivated Activists
2 categories people who are classified by political scientists who participate in party activities.
whose incentives for participating are primarily material and social in nature
who incentives are primarily purposive and social
a party organization, headed by a "party boss"
behavioral model of politics based on the assumption that human beings have a psychological need for predictability in their relations with each other.
representatives of a single political party hold all or almost all of the major offices in government. May prevail that only one party is legally permitted to run candidates. Examples: Nazi Germany and fascist Italy in the 1930s
three or more parties effectively compete for political offices, and no single party can win sole control of the government. Legislature chooses leaders of executive branch. Examples: Germany, Japan, Israel.
only two political parties have a realistic chance of winning control over a significant number of major political offices. Both parties seek total political power, but neither an eliminate its rival at the ballot box. Australia, Austria, Canada, Great Britain, New Zealand, US
method of selecting representatives in which representation is given to political parties based on the proportion of the vote obtained. Encourages multiple parties.
Winner-take-all system. makes it hard for minor parties to win office.
tendency for the single-member-district-plurality system to favor a two party system
the party that controls the majority of legislative seats chooses the chief executive, who is usually called the prime minister or premier
chief executive and legislature are elected independently.
responsible party model
describes democracies with strong, competitive parties in which one party wins control of the government based on its policy proposals
the means to require party members in public office to promote or carry through on a partisan agenda and to punish those who do not toe the party line.
when one party wins the presidency and another party wins a majority of seats in one or both houses of congress.
voting for the same party's candidates for president and congress
government jobs and contracts that elected officeholders handed out to those who supported the party
an election in which rank and file voters choose the party's nominees for various offices