A type of learning that involved stimulus-response connections
A simple form of learning in which one stimulus calls forth the response that is usually called forth by another stimulus
A stimulus that causes a response that is automatic, not learned
Learned response to a stimulus that was previously neutral, or meaningless
Learned avoidance of a particular food
When a conditioned stimulus is no longer followed by an unconditioned stimulus, it loses its ability to bring about a conditioned resopnse
Organisms sometimes display responses that were extinguished earlier
Responding in the same way to stimuli that seem to be similar
The act of responding differently to stimuli that are not similar to each other
A person is exposed to the harmless stimulus until fear responses to that stimulus are extinguisehed
People are taught relaxation techniques and then, when they are relaxed, they are exposed gradually to the stimulus they fear
A pleasant stimulus is paired repeatedly with a fearful one, counteracting the fear
People and animals learn to do certain things and not to do others because of the results of what they do
The process by which a stimulus increases the chances that the preceding behavior will occur again
Reinforcers that function due to the biological makeup of an organism; examples: food, water, and adequate warmth
Must be learned; acquire their value through being paired with established reinforcers; examples: money, attention, and social approval
Increase the frequency of the behavior that follow when they are applied
Increase the frequency of the behavior that follows when they are removed
Schedule of Reinforcement
When and how often the reinforcement occurs
The reinforcement of a behavior every time the behavior occurs
A behavior is not reinforced every time it occurs; last longer
A way of teaching complex behaviors in which one first reinforces small steps in the total activity
Each step of a sequence must be learned and must lead to the next until the final action is achieved
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