- all organisms are made up of cells
- cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things
- new cells come from existing cells
- no nucleus
- very few organelles present (ribosomes, cell wall, cytoplasm)
- many complex organelles
hold/cushions organelles, provides structure, and location of reaction
stores/protects DNA, directs protein synthesis, and is information and control center of the cell
no ribosomes, detoxifies poisons
modifies, sorts, packages, and distributes proteins and other materials from the ER storage in the cell or secretion outside of the cell
the clean up of the cell
stores H2O, salts, proteins, and carbs, pumps out excess water
provides energy for cell/power plant, site of cellular respiration
site of photosynthesis
regulates what enters and leaves the cell
to protect plant cells, to provide structure and support, and prevent excessive uptake of water
has ribosomes, makes polypeptides
network of protein fibers that provide support and allow movement, contain microfilaments and microtubules
structures of cells that act as if they are specialized organs
stacks of thylakoids in the chloroplast
the process by which autotrophs convert sunlight into food energy (glucose sugar)
reaction in which light and H2O are used to make ATP, NADPH, and O2
type of cellular respiration without oxygen
the main energy storing compound for cells, is made from glucose during cellular respiration (mitochondria)
made by electrons that travel along an electron transport chain, supplies energy for reactions in calvin cycle
short, hair-like projections made of protein
granular material in the nucleus, consists of DNA bound to proteins
disks in the chloroplast surrounded by membranes that contain photosystems and chlorophyll
the process that breaks down glucose molecules to release energy (ATP)
builds up in the muscle and creates soreness
- occurs in the matrix of mitochondria
- pyruvate and ATP goes in
- CO2, ATP, NADH, FADH comes out
(splitting of glucose)
- occurs in the cytoplasm
- glucose and ATP go in
- pyruvate and ATP come out
are prokaryotic so they have no nucleus, DNA is in nucleoid region
what do bacterial cells contain?
cell wall, cell membrane, ribosomes, flagella, cytoplasm, capsule and pilli
cell wall (BC)
rigid and may have peptidoglycan (a molecule of sugar cross linked by polypeptides)
cell membrane (BC)
border of cell
large number to produce proteins
thinner than in eukaryotic cells and can be found all over cell or just at the ends
in bacterial cell, outside the cell wall and provide protection
in bacterial cell, surface appendages that allow bacteria to adhere to things
long tail like projections made of proteins
gel-like material between grana
type of cellular respiration with oxygen
in plants, makes 2 ATP, CO2, and alcohol from pyruvate
- occurs in the stroma
- ATP, NADPH, and CO2 go in
- glucose comes out
where DNA is held
what is the chemical equation for cellular respiration?
what is the chemical equation for photosynthesis?
contain coiled DNA
what is the primary goal of cellular respiration?
what occurs in muscle cells when oxygen is not present?
lactic acid fermentation
which part of cellular respiration produces the most ATP?
electron transport chain
during cellular respiration and the electron transport chain, what molecules are created?
water & ATP
in the absence of oxygen what does yeast convert pyruvate molecules into?
carbon dioxide and alcohol
what are 2 differences between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
- photosynthesis only occurs in plants, while cellular respiration occurs in plants and animals
- photosynthesis occurs in chloroplast, while cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria
what are 2 similarities between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
- both change energy from one form to another
- have same materials