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autotroph

an organism that produces its own nutrients from inorganic substances or from the environment instead of consuming other organisms

photosynthesis

the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce carbohydrates and oxygen

heterotroph

an organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their byproducts and that cannot synthesize organic compounds from inorganic materials

light reactions

the initial reactions in photosynthesis, which are triggered by the absorption of light by photosystems I and II and include the passage of electrons along the electron transport chains, the production of NADPH and oxygen gas, and the synthesis of ATP through chemiosmosis

chloroplast

an organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs

thylakoid

a membrane system found within chloroplasts that contains the components for photosynthesis

granum

a stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast

stroma

in plants, the solution that surrounds the thylakoids in a chloroplast

pigment

a substance that gives another substance or a mixture its color

chlorophyll

a green pigment that is present in most plant and algae cells and some bacteria, that gives plants their characteristic green color, and that absorbs light to provide energy for photosynthesis

carotenoid

a class of pigments that are present mostly in plants and that aid in photosynthesis

photosystem

in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts, a cluster of chlorophyll and other pigment molecules that harvest light energy for the light reactions of photosynthesis

primary electron acceptor

in chloroplasts, an acceptor of electrons lost from chlorophyll a; found in the thylakoid membrane

electron transport chain

a series of molecules, found in the inner membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts, through which electrons pass in a process that causes protons to build up on one side of the membrane

chemiosmosis

in chloroplasts and mitochondria, a process in which the movement of protons down their concentration gradient across a membrane is coupled to the synthesis of ATP

Calvin cycle

a biochemical pathway of photosynthesis in which carbon dioxide is converted into glucose using ATP

carbon fixation

the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide, such as in photosynthesis

stoma

one of many openings in a leaf or a stem of a plant that enable gas exchange to occur

CAM pathway

a water-conserving, carbon-fixing process; CAM plants take in carbon at night and fix it into various organic compounds and release it during the day

C4 pathway

a carbon fixation pathway in
which CO2 is incorporated into four-carbon
compounds.

cellular respiration

the process by which cells produce energy from carbohydrates; atmospheric oxygen combines with glucose to form water and carbon dioxide

pyruvic acid

the three-carbon compound that is produced during glycolysis and needed for both the aerobic and anaerobic pathways of cellular respiration that follow glycolysis; broken down into carbon dioxide in a series in reaction during Krebs Cycle

NADH

the reduced form of NAD+; an electron-carrying molecule that functions in cellular respiration

anaerobic

describes a process that does not require oxygen

aerobic respiration

the process in which pyruvic acid is broken down and NADH is used to make a large amount of ATP; the part of respiration that is carried out in the presence of oxygen

glycolysis

the anaerobic breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid, which makes a small amount of energy available to cells in the form of ATP

fermentation

the breakdown of carbohydrates by enzymes, bacteria, yeasts, or mold in the absence of oxygen

lactic acid fermentation

the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates that produces lactic acid as the main end product

alcoholic fermentation

the anaerobic process by which yeasts and other microorganisms break down sugars to form carbon dioxide and ethanol

kilocalorie

a unit of energy equal to 1,000 cal

mitochondrial matrix

the fluid that is inside the inner membrane of a mitochondrion

acetyl-CoA

acetyl coenzyme A, a compound that is synthesized by cells and that plays a major role in metabolism

Krebs cycle

a series of biochemical reactions that convert pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and water; it is the major pathway of oxidation in animal, bacterial, and plant cells, and it releases energy; major step in aerobic respiration

oxaloacetic acid

a four-carbon compound of Krebs cycle that combines with acetyl CoA to form citric acid

citric acid

a six-carbon compound formed in the Krebs cycle

FAD

flavin adenine dinucleotide, a compound that acts as a hydrogen acceptor in dehydrogenation reactions

biochemical pathway

complex series of chemical reactions in which the product of one reaction is consumed in the next reaction

low CO2 and high O2

limit carbon fixation in Calvin Cylce

organic compounds

product of Calvin Cycle from ATP and NADPH

ATP and NADPH

light reactions store energy absorbed from sunlight as this

increases

rate of photosynthesis increases as rate of light intensity_____.

increasing

Until rate of photosynthesis levels off, (increasing/decreasing) levels of CO2 stimulate photosynthesis.

increases

rate of photosynthesis increases as rate of temperature (increases/decreases)over a certain range.

aerobic respiration

cellular process that produces large amounts of ATP

glucose; oxygen

raw materials needed for cellular respiration

ATP

needed to begin glycolysis

mitochondria

where most of cellular respiration takes place in eukaryotic cells

Carbon Dioxide

produced by alcoholic fermentation that makes bread dough rise

alcoholic fermentation

Human body cannot use this as an energy source

water and carbon dioxide

waste products of cellular respiration

electron transport chains

produces the most ATP

light-dependent reactions

photosynthetic membrane is not the site of this

glucose

Calvin cycle produces this

oxygen

light-dependent reactions produce this during photosynthesis

NADPH, hydrogen ions, ATP oxygen

products of light-dependent reactions

electron transport

most of the ATP produced during aerobic respiration in made by these

NADPH

produced in light dependent reactions and source of energy for Calvin cycle

chemical energy

light energy in photosynthesis concerted into this

oxygen debt

build up of lactic acid in muscle cells can cause this

convert ADP into ATP

electron transport chains uses high energy electrons from the Krebs Cycle to _______.

Photosystem II

photosystem that produces ATP and send excited electrons to the other

photosystem I

photosystem that produces NADPH for energy

cytoplasm

where glycolysis occurs

mitochondrial matrix

where krebs cycle occurs

mitochondrial membrane

where electron transport occurs

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