The Crusades' effects on exploration
After visiting the Middle East, Crusaders came back to Europe with a desire to travel to and trade more with other parts of the world. Trade brought a new knowledge of other places
An instrument that helped exploration by helping sailors find latitude and longitude
Helped exploration by figuring out the correct direction
Why did European nations seek new trade routes
Muslims controlled all the trade routes across the Mediterranean, so they were unable to use them.
How was Columbus a hero?
First person to successfully establish European culture in the Americas. This fact could probably be argued as being a positive or a negative.
How was Columbus a villain?
He killed and enslaved many Native Americans and took away their land. He was mostly focused on finding riches, gaining fame, and spreading religion.
Impact of European colonization on Native Americans
Many Native Americans were enslaved. Many Native Americans were killed by diseases brought by Europeans. The Europeans tried to convert Native Americans to their religion.
Why/how did the Spanish colonize North America?
They were the first explorers of this region. Their main economic activities were gold, silver, farming, and slave trading. The relations with the Indians were hostile. Their explorers were Columbus (Hispaniola) and Magellan (Pacific). Their settlement was New Spain.
Why/how did the French colonize North America?
They had friendly relations with Native Americans, and their main economic activity was the fur trade. They had settlements in Quebec, Canada. Their famous explorers were Cartier, La Salle, Verrazano, Marquette and Joliet, and Samuel de Champlain.
Why/how did the English colonize North America?
They had diplomatic relations with Native Americans. Their main economic activity was farming, and their settlements were in Jamestown, Virginia; Plymouth, Massachusetts; and the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Their main explorer was Cabot.
Why/how did the Dutch colonize North America?
Their settlement was in New Amsterdam, and they had diplomatic relations with the Native Americans. Their main economic activity was the fur trade, and their main explorers were Hudson and Peter Minuit.
Reasons for the establishment of the three main British colonies
Jamestown, Virginia, settled by young, single men with the goal of wealth and gold; Plymouth, Massachusetts, settled by Pilgrims with the goal of religious freedom; and the Massachusetts Bay Colony, settled by Puritans with the goal of religious freedom.
Challenges faced by Jamestown Settlement
It was the first permanent English colony. No established government, swampy conditions led to disease, and shortage of food as they searched for gold.
Challenges faced by settlers in Plymouth and the Massachusetts Bay Colony
Harsh first winters, lack of food in winter, makeshift shelters, and many died from disease and starvation