a set of processes associated with practice or experience leading to relatively permanent changes in the capability for responding
Wait for a sutible delay then retest task
body position, weight of a ball, height of net.
Resposne program... how a person will to ensure successful completion of task.
knowledge of the outcome of the action
sensory consequences of the movement, how it felt. knowledge of performance
stores relationship between the initial conditions, movement parameter and outcome
knowledge of initial conditions, environment and sensory consequences. given the initial conditions, a successful response should be like this...
cue patients into what KP they should be paying attention to so they can be aware when they perform the task incorrectly as well as correctly.
cutaneous, proprioceptive, visual. essential for organizing next response and thus motor learning
amount of practice,massed v. spaced practice, whole v. part practice, dual task practice, blocked v. random practice.
Amount of Practice
more quality practice = better performance of the task
more time between trials than it takes to complete the task. If it takes 10 seconds to perform the task, provide 15 sec rest inbetween trials. Good because it allows patient time to reflect on performance
repeated trials one after the other without rest between
practicing the task with all the components of it at once
breaking down the task into distinct components and practicing the components individually
Dual Task Practice
practicing 2 tasks at once. throwing a baseball while running.
just repeating the same task over and over without variation. 3x7=21, 3x7=21, 3x7=21
practicing the task differently each time or with various order. light up board with different pattern to follow each time. Better for integration of task.
imagining task without actually performing. good when involving physical tasks that can be tiring.
Variability of Practice
performing same task from different spots or distances. shooting a free throw from different spots around the line.
Detrimentally relying on someone else to perform the task, so one can not do it without help once help is taken away.
Highest frequency of physical guidence had poorest retention and least accuracy in retention.
nursing home residents. those receiving maximal assistance performed the worst, developing learned helplessness.
Random vs. Blocked with light up board. Those in random group performed best with transfer trial. and learned task better.
Surgery students. Mental Imagery not effective
Visual Modeling and cueing most effective in children. Adults performed better without cueing.