Human Communication in Organizations

162 terms by sesslerk

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Diversity

term used to explain how people differ by gender, age, ethnicity, physical abilities, religious affiliation, and sexual orientation; differences are grounded in culture

Discrimination

favoritism or differences in treatment of individuals because of the attributes of diversity that set them apart from others

Culture

a broad term that explains why people from various nations and co-cultures (groups different from mainstream populations in those countries) act and speak as they do, is learned

Culture "conditioning"

shapes the way we view the world and interact with each other

Subculture

identifiable differences within the larger culture by region, occupation, generation etc.

Co-Culture

exist alongside larger culture; might have things in common

Ethnocentrism

belief in the superiority of one's own culture

Prejudice

a negative preconception about people, activities, or places based upon personal experience, hearsay, or other incomplete data

International cultural communication

communication between representatives of different nations; messages filtered through a set of cultural expectations

Interracial cultural communication

communication between people with physical differences

Interethnic cultural communication

communication between people who identify themselves as members of different ethnic groups

Cross-cultural Communication

communication between people from two cultures

Glass ceiling

a barrier that is not visible but is real enough to keep women from top-management positions in many businesses and professions

Sexual harassment

this includes (1) inappropriate demands made on an employee by a fellow worker or supervisor (2) the development of uncomfortable and un professional work environments

Attitudes

a person's learned likes and dislikes

Beliefs

a person's judgments about right and wrong, true or not true

Values

a person's deep cultural assumptions that affect all areas of life

Language culture

the means by which we represent ourselves and the means by which we interpret others

Diversity in workplace

can contribute to richer organizational environment; variety of viewpoints, greater productivity, but requires sensitivity

Diversity barriers

lack of knowledge of differences, lack of communication and understanding, stereotyping, inflexible organizational schedules, discomfort, unreasonable expectations for quick change

How to communicate in a diverse organization

understand your own perspective, appreciate the perspective of others, achieve positive outcomes from diverse conflict

R. Roosevelt Thomas

"Beyond gender and race", diversity + effective conflict management= beneficial organizational change (costs are cut, attract better employees, better ideas, diverse insights)

Valuing diversity

self analysis and self awareness of communication behaviors, when conflicts arise, examine the topics of conflict, commit to change

Intercultural communication

communication between people of different national cultures, messages filtered through culturally embedded expectations, tendency to judge behavior of others against our own cultural expectations (lead to ethnocentrism), can lead to pseudo-conflict

Barriers of Intercultural Communication

difficulty imagining the other's perspective, lack of knowledge, understanding, sensitivity, most cultural assumptions are out of awareness, stereotyping, all people are alike

Improve barriers of intercultural communication

learn more along cultural dimensions, individualism and collectivism

Individualism

person's identity from their own personal activities and experiences

Collectivism

personal identity bound up with the group

Immediacy

level of involvement people display in conversation and other interactions with people (haptics and proxemics); high contact=more physical contact, closer proximity ; low contact=reserved

Uncertainty avoidance

degree of individual and/or societal tolerance for uncertainty, or ambiguity in their interaction; high concern is resistant to change and less tolerant of conflict and competition; low concern is more apt to take risks, change encouraged

High context

emphasis on nuances of nonverbal communication; what is NOT said, what is done, people may infer from the situation

Low context

emphasis on language, what is said carries most of the meaning

Power distance

how much the less powerful members expect and accept that power is distributed unequally

Low power distance culture

expect/accept power relations that are more democratic, relate to each other more as equals regardless of formal positions

High power distance culture

less powerful, accept power relations

Masculine, paternal cultures

emphasis on assertion, competition

Feminine cultures

emphasis on rapport, community, cooperation, negotiated relationships

Manager

coordinates and organized activities

Leader

influences people and their behavior

Leadership

set of behaviors

Planning

setting goals and outlining steps to achieve those goals

Organizing

the process of accumulating and coordinating the human and capital resources necessary to undertake a plan

Motivating

generating commitment and support for a plan

Controlling

using authority and power to ensure that a plan succeeds

Technical skills

the ability to use data, information, innovations, and techniques

Human skills

the ability to work with people to accomplish goals

Conceptual skills

the ability to see your job in its relationship to the entire organization and to recognize how the organization interacts with its environment

Transaction

occurs when each party gives up something in exchange for something else

Trust

a characteristic resulting from a strong commitment to ethical behavior within the organization's system of values

Understanding

a characteristic resulting from listening to others, using clear and respectful language, and relying on appropriate techniques for behavior control

Empowerment

giving people the opportunity to think and act for themselves within the guidelines of the shared values and vision of the organization

Constancy

the ability to stay on course, to remain focused on the vision and goals regardless of setbacks

Congruity

the parallel between what a leader says and what a leader does

Reliability

a leader's support of employees and coworkers in times of need, whether personal, organizational, or professional

Integrity

keeping promises and commitments and refusing to make promises that compromise the well-being of coworkers and the organization

Involvement

getting people working on activities other than their daily tasks, giving employees a sense of importance in the organization

Integration

bringing people together so that their varied talents and skills can be complementary and mutually supportive, giving employees a sense of cooperation

Nature of groups

perform better than single person, more and better idea creation, division of labor, redundancy, better understanding, better solutions

Behaviors that define group

know each other by name or role, interconnected, interdependence, identification with group, leadership

Function of groups

primary work group, project team, self-managing team, quality circle, task force, affinity group

Variables that affect communication

cohesiveness, leadership, roles, norms

Group myths

members should be objective, enter a new group without preconceived notions,, conflict should be avoided, members should make "equal" contributions, groups should proceed in a certain way

Cohesiveness

the degree to which a group hangs together

Norms

recurring patterns that define accepted behavior within a group

Conformity

agreement with or correspondence to a set of ideas, rules, or principles

Groupthink

the tendency of group members to seek agreement solely for agreement's sake

Advocacy

presentation of competing views on a controversial issue

Devil's advocate

the group member who introduces dissent into decision-making processes

Leader

the member of a group who speaks the most, speaks the most to the group as a whole, is spoken to the most, and directs communication in the group to productive levels

Traits

the personalities, physical appearances, or behaviors of people in a group

Leadership style

the behaviors that leaders use when interacting with group members

Situational Leadership

leadership style that involves adapting behaviors to the situation at hand rather than relying on one "best" style in all situations

Maturity

a combination of a group's willingness and ability to perform a task

Directing phase

phase of situational leadership in which a leader must provide a great deal of guidance to the group

Coaching phase

phase of situational leadership in which the leader is in the role of peer and gives compliments, reassures, minimizes doubts, and encourages productivity

Supporting phase

phase of situational leadership in which the leader is in the role of peer and gives compliments, reassures, minimizes doubts, and encourages productivity

Delegating phase

phase of situational leadership in which the leader directly or indirectly moves responsibility for group tasks, creativity, solutions, and decisions to group members

Functional leadership

style of leadership in which groups rise to an occasion and perform needed leadership functions

Authoritarian decision making

style of decision making in which a leader hands down a decision to the group

Laissez faire decision making

style of decision-making in which there is minimal involvement by the group leader

Participative decision making

style of decision-making in which the leader makes decisions with the group

Quality circle

groups of employees who meet on a regular basis during work time to improve quality control and job methods

Self-managing Teams

small groups of employees who share the responsibility for a significant task

Affinity group

a group consisting of eight to twelve members in a sponsoring organization that meet on a regular basis to exchange information, ideas, opinions, and experiences on a variety of issues in a safe and supportive atmosphere, resulting in personal and professional growth

Agenda

a guide that specifies what is to be discussed when, in what order, and for how long

Quorum

number of members required to be present for a group to conduct business officially

Reading the minutes

summarization of what took place in previous meetings of the group

Special committees

temporary subgroups created to look into short-term or specific problems

Standing committees

permanent subgroups that concentrate on long-term developments in broad areas

Organizational goals

goals that are set at upper levels of an organization's hierarchy and describe pathways to excellence

Group goals

goals that serve the mission and purpose of the group itself

Process goals

goals that attempt to improve the working of the group itself

Individual goals

goals that group members have in addition to the group's stated goals

Analysis

the process of tearing apart an issue and examining its component parts to see how they relate to the whole

Reasoning

the ability to pull various data together and draw sound conclusions from them

Deductive reasoning

type of reasoning that moves from general truths to specific conclusions

Syllogism

a three part argument containing a general truth, a related claim, and a conclusion

Inductive reasoning

type of reasoning that moves from specific statements to general conclusions

Example reasoning

type of reasoning based on collecting specific cases and then making a generalization based on them

Sign reasoning

type of reasoning that draws conclusions from simple observations

Hasty generalization

conclusions based on small or nonrepresentative samples of data

Comparative reasoning

type of reasoning that pulls together two examples and assumes that what is true in the first case must be true in the second case

Casual reasoning

the type of reasoning that asserts that one factor is strong enough to product an effect in another factor, asks the question "Why did that happen"

Interpretation

an extension of casual reasoning in which you ask not only "Why did that happen?" but also "What does it mean"

Evaluation

the process of making judgments about information or data

Problem solving

the process of defining a problem and generating solutions

Reflective thinking

a five-step process whose success depends on each group member's willingness to participate

Nominal group technique (NGT)

technique that allows groups to discuss problems and solutions in a relatively structured setting

Delphi technique

technique that uses questionnaires to collect opinions and judgments from experts, who usually remain anonymous

Consensus

unanimous agreement among group members concerning a particular decision

Informational

dimension of group evaluation that looks at how well the group's activities and communication are coordinated

Procedural

dimension of group evaluation that looks at how the group's activities and communication are coordinated

Interpersonal

dimension of group evaluation in which the emphasis is on how well the members of the group work with one another

Decision making methods

consensus, majority, minority, authority

Difference between leadership and management

manage people, manage things, do the right thing, do things right, influence people, coordinate activity

Transactional leadership theory

a transaction occurs when each party gives up something for something else

Transformational

when the core, or root characteristics are changed (values, motivation)

Trait theories

people are born with certain traits to be a leader

Style theories

people can be educated and trained

Situational theories

choice of leadership: needs of situation, needs of collowers; adaptability (tell, sell, delegate, participate)

Superleadership theories

lead others to lead themselves

Transformational theories

creative, visionary passionate, empowering

Legitimate power base

power from position, title, or role occupied

Reward power base

have control over some desired resource for distribution

Coercive power base

perceived ability to punish or enforce sanctions

Referent power base

based on identification with another person, role model

Expert power bade

possession of desired or needed information, skills, or abilities

Correction

belonging to networks valued by other people

Argumentativeness

an inclination to argue or a fondness for arguing

Verbal aggressiveness

the tendency to attack other people instead of other points of view

Negotiation

a planned and structured process of communication in which two or more people with different goals exchange communication to produce a mutually desirable outcome

Formal bargaining

process that develops when recurring issues require deliberation and confrontation over time

Informal bargaining

process that involves spontaneous situations that are seldom repeated

Positioning

moving the focus of the negotiation to issues that are important to you

Concession

giving up some goals to obtain something in return

Cooperative strategies

open, honest, and upfront attempts at objective and productive problem solving

Competitive strategies

attempts to maximize one's own position at the expense of the adversary

Distributive

the bargainer's assumption that a gain for her or his side equals a loss to the other side

Conflict

an expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce rewards, and interference from the other party in achieving their goals

Content goals

the apparent issues or obvious reasons for a dispute

Relational goals

define each party's importance to the other, the emotional distance they wish to maintain, the influence each is willing to grant the other, the degree to which the parties are seen as a unit, or the rights each party is willing to grant to the others

Situational factors

elements in the conflict that affect the nature of conflict and the styles you select to deal with them

Communication competence

the strengths and weaknesses you possess in any conflict situation

Conflict escalation

heightened tensions in conflict situations due to poor communication or misunderstandings

Nature of conflict

occurs on many levels, built into some systems, influence by cultured, nonverbal become magnified, problem is in managing consistency

Positive conflict in culture

identify problems, unify a group, educational, lead to better solutions and decisions

Negative conflict in culture

threatens individuals, avoidance behaviors, withholding information, cause cynicism and reduced communication

Latent stage of conflict

antecedent, stress

Emergent stage of conflict

perceived and felt; conflict erupts, is acknowledged, win/lose approach

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