Pollution Prevention, the highest priority is source reduction, the most effective P2 activity is product modification to avoid solvent use
Plan, Do, Check, Act (P2)
Hazardous Air Pollutant
Transport, Storage, Disposal Facility, is required to have a waste tracking program, a training plan, arrangements with emergency responders, an employee onsite at all times
National Pollution Discharge Elimination System
Stormwater pollution prevention plans
Waste Management Hierarchy
1. Prevent or reduce 2. Recycle 3. Treat 4. Dispose or otherwise release
Atomic Energy Act
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, covers generation of haz waste, transportation of haz waste, USTs, and non-haz solid waste
As Low As Reasonably Achievable (AEA)
Land Disposal Restriction (RCRA), meant to minimize post-closure escape of waste, reduces the volume of haz waste disposal, encourages recycling
Minimum Technology Requirements (RCRA), including liner requirements, leak detection and collection requirements, groundwater monitoring
Corrective Action Management Unit (RCRA), needs to assess environmental and health risks, if it will enhance the timeliness of remediation, will minimize the land utilized for final disposal, will provide expeditious implementation of site remedies
Temporary Unit (RCRA)
Corrective Measures Study (RCRA)
RCRA Facility Investigation
Solid Waste Management Unit (RCRA)
Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (expanded RCRA)
Corrective Action (HSWA), requires identification of all SWMUs on a site before issuance of a Part B permit, a comprehensive groundwater monitoring program, can require clean-ups outside a facilities boundary, provide for temporary treatment units, has an additional section in a final permit requiring further site clean-ups
Arsenic (5 ppm max), Cadmium (2 ppm max), Chromium (10ppm max), Lead (100 ppm max), Total Halogens (4000 ppm max), Flash point (100oF minimum)
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, conducts research in occupational safety and health, develop criteria as a basis for new standards, provides education, manpower development and training on health and safety equipment, enforces occupational health and safety guidelines.
Threshold Limit Value
An absolute value which cannot be exceeded (no TWA)
The center of an atom made up of a proton and a neutron
the removal of electrons from an electrically neutral atom
Time, Distance, Shielding (ways to reduce exposure to radiation)
Slowest, largest radioactive particle. Most destructive if inhaled or ingested. Can be stopped by paper/tyvek. Made up of a proton and neutron.
Can be stopped by plastic/aluminum foil. Can travel up to four feet from source. Made up of an electron.
Half-lives to get to 12.5% of original radionuclide
Three. 100 (one) 50 (two) 25 (three) 12.5
any substance that will produce a harmful effect when introduced to the body in sufficient concentrations, creates a toxic effect when a mechanism is available to allow a biochemical reaction at a receptor site in the target organ
Lethal dose 50%
not a toxin (for a particular target organ) that in combination with a toxin, enhances the toxins effect
Chemical of Interest (CFATS)
Department of Homeland Security (US Coast Guard, US Secret Service, Transportation Security Administration (TSA), US Customs and Border Protection (CBP)
Chemical Security Assessment Tool, which assesses security risks
Site Security Plan
Secure site assets, Deter, Detect, Delay, Screen and control access.
Should only be available to those who "need to know" (CFATS)
Respirator Fit Factors
Half-mask 10, Full Face 50, Supplied Air (w/o egress bottle) 1000, SCBA 10000
Level A PPE
Full body encapsulating suit, SCBA, Dermal protection
Does NOT require an employer to pay for non-specialty safety toe footwear
OSHA General Industry Standard
OSHA Construction Standard
The top priority for OSHA inspections are imminent danger situations.
Class IV UIC
Used to dispose of hazardous wastes (SWDA)
Class III UIC
Used to dispose of oil and gas production wastes (SWDA)
Maximum Contaminate Level, legally enforceable public health goal
Safe Water Drinking Act (1980), established public notifications for violations, increased civil penalties, recalled all water coolers with lead lined tanks and banned lead containing pipes
30% of Earth's fresh water supply
Represents only 3% of Earth's water,~70% or Earth's fresh water is tied up in glacial ice and the other 30% is in groundwater with very little surface water
Estimates hydraulic conductivity
Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid. Includes chlorinated solvents and long-chain hydrocarbons (heavy oils/asphalts), DNAPLs do not adhere to soil particles
Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid, Short chain hydrocarbons including gasoline. NAPLs adhere to soil particles
Comprehensive Environmental Restoration Compensation and Liability Act. Established "Hazardous Substances" and covers sites not covered by existing laws, except facilities and vessels, does not apply to active sites, requires that actions meet standards of other laws and regulations
Superfund Amendments and Re-authorization Act (1986)
CERCLA Section 102
Lists "Hazardous Substances"
CERCLA Section 107
Imposes "strict" and "joint and several" liability to all generators, transporters and facility owners. Does not require showing of fault or negligence where damages have occurred. Full damages may be recovered from one, some or all potentially liable parties.
Federal Water Pollution Control Act (1972)
Phase II storm water requirements
Apply to discharges from MS4s serving fewer than 10,000 people
CWA Title III
Established water quality criteria, requires assessment of watersheds, established the NPDES program, requires point source compliance with treatment technologies
Receiving water quality criteria
TMDLs, Turbidity, pH, Bioassay
Total Maximum Daily Load, CWA Section 303
Clean Water Act
Dredge and Fill Permits administered by the Army Corp of Engineers
A list of impaired waters
Oil and grease, BOD, COD, and TSS
Stormwater permit sampling
Includes grab sampling, pH and temp of the sample, rainfall measurements, record of the date and duration of the sampling
Stormwater permit holder
Required to prepare and implement a stormwater pollution prevention plan, form a pollution prevention team, create pollution prevention measures, and use Best Management Practices (BMPs)
Facility response plan, necessary for facility with oil storage in excess of 1,000,000 gallons, requires drills and tabletop exercises, plans for Worst Case Discharges (WCDs), and training for employees on the FRP
Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plans, required for facilities with more than 1320 gallons of above ground oil storage or 40,000 gallons of below ground storage, must be reviewed every five years, must be sealed by a PE unless it is a "Qualified Facility" with less than 10,000 gallons of oil storage
State Emergency Response Commission
Local Emergency Planning Committee
Toxic Chemical Release Inventory, required for facilities manufacturing, mining, and utilities that manufacture or process over 25,000 pounds or "otherwise use" over the threshold planning quantity of extremely hazardous substances
Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act
Tier II Report
Required under EPCRA for a facility that has 10,000 pounds of any hazardous chemical
Requires core elements such as a management review, policy, checking, and corrective actions
All Appropriate Inquiries, must update government records or visual inspections after 180 days, requires that the environmental professional sign the report, provide an opinion regarding site conditions, review historical records, and provide professional qualifications
Phase II ESA
Invasive evaluation of potential RECs
Required for the transportation of hazardous materials
Allows private carriers to transport hazardous materials if individual packages do not exceed 8 gallons or 66 pounds
On the periodic table, a set of elements that act the same chemically. Eg. Noble Gases, Halide series
mass per unit volume of a given vapor/gas relative to that of air
Red=Flammability, Yellow=Reactivity, Blue=Health, White=Special Precautions, 1 is lowest hazard, 4 is extremely hazardous
Used to determine contamination that is introduced in the field or en route to the laboratory
Chain of Custody, provides written documentation of the history of the sample
Laws with P2 components
PPA, RCRA, CWA, CAA
Have the full effect of the law and can be enforced civilly and criminally
Legal concepts for pollution control
Trespass, Nuisance, Negligence
Has thermal resistance, chemical resistance, high tensile strength, not electrically conductive
units associated with medical monitoring for lead
the primary route of exposure to lead
the primary health effect from lead
Agencies that regulate asbestos
EPA, OSHA, DOT
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
FIFRA definition for pesticide residue on food
Herbicides, Insecticides, Biocides
29 CFR 1910.120
Covers Haz Waste Operations, Cleanup, and ERs
Requires 40-hours off-site safety training, 3 days of supervised field experience. Supervisors require 8 hours of additional training.
PCB Annual Report
Includes manifests, exception reports, applicable records for the previous year, and certificates of disposal or destruction
Concentrations >= 50 and >500 ppm PCB
Temporary storage for less than 30 days, impervious flooring, PCB marked, must be disposed of within one year
spills to grazing land or vegetable gardens are subject to standards at the discretion of the regional office, limited to spills after May 4, 1987, disposal options are based on the current measured concentrations
New major air emissions in an attainment area
Requires New Source Performance Standards, BACT, Title V Operating Permit
New Source Review
Required for a new facility or a modified existing facility (>10%)
Federal regulation amendments
can be found in the Federal Register but are easiest to find on the Agencies website or from a regulation tracking service
In RCRA, a facility that predates RCRA but is pursuing a RCRA permit
Federal Facilities Compliance Act (1992), provided a statutory basis for pursuing monetary penalties against Federal Facilities
Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (RCRA) included hazardous waste used as fuel, financial responsibility, Minimum Technology Requirements (MTRs), and air emissions from TSDFs
Reactive, Corrosive, Ignitable, Toxic
Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest
Includes the EPA ID number, the name of the primary transporter, the names of backup transporters, an ER number that must be answered 24/7, the name and address of the generator, the signature of the generator or an agent
Land Disposal Notification
Accompanies the waste shipment to a TSDF and includes an analysis of the ability to meet treatment standards
1. Congress enacts a law 2. Agency establishes a rulemaking schedule 3. Agency establishes a docket 4. Develop a concept for regulation 5. Publish proposed regulation in Fed Reg 6. Public hearing 7. Withdraw, make minor revisions or publish final regulation
Ways to reference a law
1. Short title (eg TSCA) 2. Public law citation (eg. PL 101-459 = 549th law of the 101 Congress) 3. United State Code (USC) (eg. 42USC§7402)
CDI averaging time
Chronic Daily Intake
Stormwater discharge application
Part A- Who and what
Part B- Where and how much
EPCRA hazard categories
Immediate (acute) health hazards, delayed (chronic) health hazards, and sudden releases of pressure
EPCRA Tier II reporting
Chemical inventory forms including chemical names and CAS numbers
Emergency response not required
When the release results in exposure to persons solely within the boundaries of the facility
Threshold Planning Quantity, two values are listed, the first applies to materials with higher hazard properties and the second applies to lower hazard properties (40CFR355.30), the TPQ when equaled or exceeded subjects the facility to regulation under EPCRA
Sound Pressure Level, unweighted
SPL(total) = 10 log [ sum 10 (SPL/10)]
SPL (total) = 10 log [sum 10 (SPL/10) (t(partial)/t(total)]
Limit of Detection, Should be at least 25% of the TLV for a air monitoring device to be acceptable for use
HI<1 is acceptable
RfD= NOAEL(or LOAEL)/(UF)(MF)
NOAEL= No observable adverse effect level
UF= Uncertainty Factor
No observable adverse effect level
Preliminary Assessment/ Site Inspection
Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study
Record of Decision
Remedial Design/ Remedial Action
National Priorities List, Superfund
Nitric oxide exists in equilibrium with nitrogen tetroxide in the ambient atmosphere, is colorless, is a dissociation product of nitrogen trioxide and is an irritant of the eyes and mucous membranes
PVA, A material used in PPE, very effective against hydrocarbons but dissolves in water
Half Value (radiation), if the HVL of lead is 0.33 cm and you double the thickness you reduce the exposure to 1/4 of the original exposure
NFPA Class B fire
Oil, gasoline, paint
NFPA Class II combustible liquid
flash point >= 100oF but less than 140oF
Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion. A rapid pressure increase in a confined vessel that results in a sudden release of pressure as the vessel ruptures
Suitable for NFPA Class A and Class B fires
Oxygen deficient atmosphere
19.5% (O2/vol) or less
Perceived noise level, a noise rating associated with airports
Composite noise level, a noise rating associated with airports
Noise exposure forecast, a noise rating associated with airports
Sound is characterized by pressure, power, and intensity
Audible range for humans
between 16 Hz and 20,000 Hz frequencies
ISO 14000 standards
Two general categories: Organizational evaluation standards and Product and Process evaluation standards
ISO 14000 parts
Environmental Auditing (EA), Environmental Management Systems (EMS) and Life cycle assessment (LCA)
ISO 14000 registration outcomes
Approval, Conditional Approval, Disapproval
Class I UBC classification
Interior finishes with a flame spread index of less than 25
Group H UBC classification
Staircase dimensional criteria for egress are covered under the Life Safety Code and UBC
Life Safety Code hazards
low, ordinary, high
National Ambient Air Quality Standards
Prevention of Serious Deterioration
Lowest Achievable Emission Rate
Best Available Control Technology
Reasonable Achievable Control Technology
Air monitoring for methane and hydrogen sulfide
Should be performed at the bottom and top of a space because methane is lighter than air and hydrogen sulfide is heavier than air
Required controls for a major facility modification
BACT- in attainment areas
LAER- in non-attainment areas
MACT - for HAPs
What training is required for a permit required confined space entry?
Confined space, HAZWOPER, respirator training
NFPA Life Safety Code
covers building services and fire protection equipment
Only pesticides registered with the USEPA can be distributed, sold or placed into commerce
TSCA inventory list requirements
All chemical manufactured for sale
Large Quantity Generator, >1000 kg per month or > 1 kg of acutely hazardous waste per month
Small Quantity Generator, 100 kg < x < 1000 kg per month, AND accumulates <6000 kg at any time
Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generator, <100 kg per month or <1kg of acute waste per month AND accumulates <1000 kg or <1 kg acute or <100kg cleanup from an acute spill
Hazardous waste characteristics
Ignitability, corrosivity, toxicity, reactivity
Particulates, Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Lead
Sulfur coal plant emit?
SO2, SO3, and SO4(-2)
Grab samples for wastewater 24-hour composite sampling event
Oil and grease
T/F: There TLVs for total culturable or countable organisms and particles
What defines general use pesticides
Pesticides that can be used by untrained persons according to label instructions without creating unreasonable adverse effects to the person applying the pesticides or to the environment.
How do you calculate the Hazard Index (HI)?
HI = dose / RfD
The respiratory protection equipment required for initial entry to remove sludge that is contaminated with an unknown hydrocarbon is?
SCBA operated in pressure demand mode
How do you calculate radioactive attenuation
I(2) = I(1) (r(1)/r(2))^2
r= distance from the source
To qualify a UST as a "confined space" it must be established that it has:
limited access and/or toxic atmospheres
the potential for an IDLH atmosphere makes it a "permit required confined space"
A mixture of a hazardous waste (non-listed) and a solid (non-hazardous) waste is?
Not considered a hazardous waste if the mixture no longer retains the characteristic that made it hazardous (i.e. ignitability)
What remediation technology is effective for removing high concentrations of low-solubility petroleum compounds from contaminated soil?
Soil vapor extraction wells
LD(50/30) refers to?
The dose expected to cause the death of 50% of an exposed population within 30 minutes
The majority of the gas generated within a landfill is methane and ____?
What is the generally accepted method for measuring attainment with NAAQS for nitrogen dioxide?
Who is responsible for evaluating chemicals to determine if they are hazardous?
manufacturers and importers
What is the description of a Class IV organic peroxide?
Burns as ordinarily combustible and presents a minimum reactivity hazard
What is the description of a Class I unstable, non-water reactive material?
What classifications are used for cryogenic fluids?
corrosive/highly toxic, flammable, non-flammable
For a 12,000 gallon AST storing a Class IIIB combustible liquid, what is the minimum set back from the property line?
5 ft (UFC)
Under the Uniform Fire Code (UFC), what are the general requirements for hazardous material storage?
compatibility among stored chemicals, spill control and containment, storage cabinet construction
How frequently should employee refresher training be provided under the Process Safety Management (PSM) standard?
as needed, but at least every 3 yrs
What conditions prompt a compliance audit under the PSM standard?
Three year have elapsed since the last audit
What responsibility does the employer have for ensuring that employees are proficient in the use of PPE?
The employer must provide training, require the employee to demonstrate proficiency, retrain employees who lose proficiency, and provide written certification.
What are the categories of particulate matter (PM)?
fume - solid - 0.03um - 0.3um
smoke - solid - 0.05 um - 1um
mist - liquid - 0.5um - 3um
dust - solid - 1um - 10mm
spray - liquid - 10um- 10mm
What do the following acronyms stand for?
CAA - Clean Air Act
NESHAP - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants
RCRA - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
CERCLA - Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act
SARA - Superfund Amendments and Re-authorization Act
What do the following acronyms stand for?
NEPA - National Environmental Policy Act (requires EIS)
FIFRA - Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act
SDWA - Safe Drinking Water Act (est MCLs)
TSCA - Toxic Substances Control Act (requires toxicity testing of new compounds)
EPCRA - Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-know Act
High molecular weight and strongly hydrophobic organic compounds are common soil contaminates due to crude oil spills, these compounds are most often partitioned to soils containing?
Humic (the process is called on sorption and is based on relative affinity)
A generator is considering less expensive options to incineration for management of chlorobenzene, options available under the RCRA generator standards are?
Recycling the solution directly into the process from which it was generated. Disposal in a landfill and volatilization are not acceptable under RCRA
What are the four steps in preparing an environmental impact statement (EIS)?
3) EIS Preparation
What are the required elements in a negligence claim?
1) Duty of the defendant to the plaintiff
2) Breach of that duty
3) Damage to the plaintiff
4) Breach was the proximate cause of the damage
Define strict liability
Strict liability for abnormally dangerous activities may cause a defendant to be liable for harm to a person, land or personal property of another resulting from that activity, although the defendant has exercised the utmost care to prevent the harm.
What are the four types of torts?
Trespass, Nuisance, Negligence, Strict Liability
10 CFR =?
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Dept of Energy
29 CFR = ?
Department of Labor
30 CFR = ?
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), Mineral Resources
33 CFR = ?
Coast Guard, Navigation and Navigable Waters
40 CFR = ?
EPA, Protection of the Environment
49 CFR = ?
Department of Transportation
5 EMS components
Environmental policy, planning, Implementation and operation, Checking and Corrective Action, Management Review
The five assets of the SIGMA guidelines
Natural capital (environment), human capital (people), social capital (relationships/structures), manufactured capital (fixed assets), financial capital (profit, sales, shares, cash)
7 steps of an audit
Initiation, Document review, prepare for on-site audit, perform on-site audit, prepare the audit report, complete the audit, conduct the audit follow-up
8 types of records to review in an audit
environmental permits, environmental logs and inspections, correspondence to/from regulatory agencies, regulatory report filings, facility material balance, emission inventories, MSDSs, Hazardous waste manifests/shipping papers
Nine penalty mitigation conditions
Systematic discovery, voluntary discovery (sampling/auditing), prompt disclosure (within 21 days), independent discovery and disclosure, correction and remediation within 60 days, prevent recurrence of the violation, repeat violations are ineligible, ineligible violations (actual harm, imminent and substantial endangerment, violates terms of an AO or CA), cooperation is required.
CDI = (Concentration)(daily intake)(exposure frequency)(exposure duration, typ 70 years)/(body weight, typ 70 kg)(average exposure time (day)
risk = slope factor (SF) x CDI
Work breakdown structure (PM)
Four characteristics of a corporation
limited liability to the extent of assets, continuity of life, centralization of management, free transferability of ownership interests (an LLC can only have two of these traits)
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (business)