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P2

Pollution Prevention, the highest priority is source reduction, the most effective P2 activity is product modification to avoid solvent use

PDCA

Plan, Do, Check, Act (P2)

HAP

Hazardous Air Pollutant

MACT

Maximum Achievable Control Technology

TSDF

Transport, Storage, Disposal Facility, is required to have a waste tracking program, a training plan, arrangements with emergency responders, an employee onsite at all times

NPDES

National Pollution Discharge Elimination System

SWPPPs

Stormwater pollution prevention plans

Waste Management Hierarchy

1. Prevent or reduce 2. Recycle 3. Treat 4. Dispose or otherwise release

AEA

Atomic Energy Act

RCRA

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, covers generation of haz waste, transportation of haz waste, USTs, and non-haz solid waste

ALARA

As Low As Reasonably Achievable (AEA)

LDRs

Land Disposal Restriction (RCRA), meant to minimize post-closure escape of waste, reduces the volume of haz waste disposal, encourages recycling

MTRs

Minimum Technology Requirements (RCRA), including liner requirements, leak detection and collection requirements, groundwater monitoring

CAMU

Corrective Action Management Unit (RCRA), needs to assess environmental and health risks, if it will enhance the timeliness of remediation, will minimize the land utilized for final disposal, will provide expeditious implementation of site remedies

TU

Temporary Unit (RCRA)

RI

Remedial Investigation

CMS

Corrective Measures Study (RCRA)

IM

Interim Measures

RFI

RCRA Facility Investigation

SWMU

Solid Waste Management Unit (RCRA)

HSWA

Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (expanded RCRA)

CA

Corrective Action (HSWA), requires identification of all SWMUs on a site before issuance of a Part B permit, a comprehensive groundwater monitoring program, can require clean-ups outside a facilities boundary, provide for temporary treatment units, has an additional section in a final permit requiring further site clean-ups

Used Oil

Arsenic (5 ppm max), Cadmium (2 ppm max), Chromium (10ppm max), Lead (100 ppm max), Total Halogens (4000 ppm max), Flash point (100oF minimum)

NIOSH

National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, conducts research in occupational safety and health, develop criteria as a basis for new standards, provides education, manpower development and training on health and safety equipment, enforces occupational health and safety guidelines.

TLV

Threshold Limit Value

Ceiling Value

An absolute value which cannot be exceeded (no TWA)

Nucleus

The center of an atom made up of a proton and a neutron

Ionization

the removal of electrons from an electrically neutral atom

TDS

Time, Distance, Shielding (ways to reduce exposure to radiation)

Alpha particle

Slowest, largest radioactive particle. Most destructive if inhaled or ingested. Can be stopped by paper/tyvek. Made up of a proton and neutron.

Beta particle

Can be stopped by plastic/aluminum foil. Can travel up to four feet from source. Made up of an electron.

Half-lives to get to 12.5% of original radionuclide

Three. 100 (one) 50 (two) 25 (three) 12.5

Toxin

any substance that will produce a harmful effect when introduced to the body in sufficient concentrations, creates a toxic effect when a mechanism is available to allow a biochemical reaction at a receptor site in the target organ

LD50

Lethal dose 50%

Potentiation

not a toxin (for a particular target organ) that in combination with a toxin, enhances the toxins effect

COI

Chemical of Interest (CFATS)

DHS

Department of Homeland Security (US Coast Guard, US Secret Service, Transportation Security Administration (TSA), US Customs and Border Protection (CBP)

CSAT

Chemical Security Assessment Tool, which assesses security risks

Site Security Plan

Secure site assets, Deter, Detect, Delay, Screen and control access.

Vulnerability Information

Should only be available to those who "need to know" (CFATS)

Respirator Fit Factors

Half-mask 10, Full Face 50, Supplied Air (w/o egress bottle) 1000, SCBA 10000

Level A PPE

Full body encapsulating suit, SCBA, Dermal protection

29CFR1910.132(h)(2)

Does NOT require an employer to pay for non-specialty safety toe footwear

29CFR1910

OSHA General Industry Standard

29CFR1926

OSHA Construction Standard

OHSA inspections

The top priority for OSHA inspections are imminent danger situations.

Class IV UIC

Used to dispose of hazardous wastes (SWDA)

Class III UIC

Used to dispose of oil and gas production wastes (SWDA)

MCL

Maximum Contaminate Level, legally enforceable public health goal

SWDA

Safe Water Drinking Act (1980), established public notifications for violations, increased civil penalties, recalled all water coolers with lead lined tanks and banned lead containing pipes

Groundwater

30% of Earth's fresh water supply

Fresh water

Represents only 3% of Earth's water,~70% or Earth's fresh water is tied up in glacial ice and the other 30% is in groundwater with very little surface water

Pumping/slug testing

Estimates hydraulic conductivity

DNAPL

Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid. Includes chlorinated solvents and long-chain hydrocarbons (heavy oils/asphalts), DNAPLs do not adhere to soil particles

LNAPL

Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid, Short chain hydrocarbons including gasoline. NAPLs adhere to soil particles

CERCLA

Comprehensive Environmental Restoration Compensation and Liability Act. Established "Hazardous Substances" and covers sites not covered by existing laws, except facilities and vessels, does not apply to active sites, requires that actions meet standards of other laws and regulations

SARA

Superfund Amendments and Re-authorization Act (1986)

CERCLA Section 102

Lists "Hazardous Substances"

CERCLA Section 107

Imposes "strict" and "joint and several" liability to all generators, transporters and facility owners. Does not require showing of fault or negligence where damages have occurred. Full damages may be recovered from one, some or all potentially liable parties.

FWPCA

Federal Water Pollution Control Act (1972)

Phase II storm water requirements

Apply to discharges from MS4s serving fewer than 10,000 people

CWA Title III

Established water quality criteria, requires assessment of watersheds, established the NPDES program, requires point source compliance with treatment technologies

Receiving water quality criteria

TMDLs, Turbidity, pH, Bioassay

TMDL

Total Maximum Daily Load, CWA Section 303

CWA

Clean Water Act

404 Permits

Dredge and Fill Permits administered by the Army Corp of Engineers

CWA 303d

A list of impaired waters

Stormwater pollutants

Oil and grease, BOD, COD, and TSS

Stormwater permit sampling

Includes grab sampling, pH and temp of the sample, rainfall measurements, record of the date and duration of the sampling

Stormwater permit holder

Required to prepare and implement a stormwater pollution prevention plan, form a pollution prevention team, create pollution prevention measures, and use Best Management Practices (BMPs)

FRP

Facility response plan, necessary for facility with oil storage in excess of 1,000,000 gallons, requires drills and tabletop exercises, plans for Worst Case Discharges (WCDs), and training for employees on the FRP

SPCC

Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plans, required for facilities with more than 1320 gallons of above ground oil storage or 40,000 gallons of below ground storage, must be reviewed every five years, must be sealed by a PE unless it is a "Qualified Facility" with less than 10,000 gallons of oil storage

SERC

State Emergency Response Commission

LEPC

Local Emergency Planning Committee

TRI

Toxic Chemical Release Inventory, required for facilities manufacturing, mining, and utilities that manufacture or process over 25,000 pounds or "otherwise use" over the threshold planning quantity of extremely hazardous substances

EPCRA

Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act

Tier II Report

Required under EPCRA for a facility that has 10,000 pounds of any hazardous chemical

ISO 14001

Requires core elements such as a management review, policy, checking, and corrective actions

AAI

All Appropriate Inquiries, must update government records or visual inspections after 180 days, requires that the environmental professional sign the report, provide an opinion regarding site conditions, review historical records, and provide professional qualifications

Phase II ESA

Invasive evaluation of potential RECs

Specification packaging

Required for the transportation of hazardous materials

Trade exemption

Allows private carriers to transport hazardous materials if individual packages do not exceed 8 gallons or 66 pounds

Periodic group

On the periodic table, a set of elements that act the same chemically. Eg. Noble Gases, Halide series

Reduction

gaining electrons

Oxidation

losing electrons

Vapor Density

mass per unit volume of a given vapor/gas relative to that of air

NFPA Diamond

Red=Flammability, Yellow=Reactivity, Blue=Health, White=Special Precautions, 1 is lowest hazard, 4 is extremely hazardous

Sample blanks

Used to determine contamination that is introduced in the field or en route to the laboratory

COC

Chain of Custody, provides written documentation of the history of the sample

Laws with P2 components

PPA, RCRA, CWA, CAA

Regulations

Have the full effect of the law and can be enforced civilly and criminally

Legal concepts for pollution control

Trespass, Nuisance, Negligence

Asbestos

Has thermal resistance, chemical resistance, high tensile strength, not electrically conductive

ug/dl

units associated with medical monitoring for lead

Ingestion

the primary route of exposure to lead

Neurological

the primary health effect from lead

Agencies that regulate asbestos

EPA, OSHA, DOT

FIFRA

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act

Tolerances

FIFRA definition for pesticide residue on food

Pesticides

Herbicides, Insecticides, Biocides

29 CFR 1910.120

Covers Haz Waste Operations, Cleanup, and ERs

HAZWOPER Training

Requires 40-hours off-site safety training, 3 days of supervised field experience. Supervisors require 8 hours of additional training.

PCB Annual Report

Includes manifests, exception reports, applicable records for the previous year, and certificates of disposal or destruction

PCB contaminated

Concentrations >= 50 and >500 ppm PCB

PCB storage

Temporary storage for less than 30 days, impervious flooring, PCB marked, must be disposed of within one year

PCB cleanup

spills to grazing land or vegetable gardens are subject to standards at the discretion of the regional office, limited to spills after May 4, 1987, disposal options are based on the current measured concentrations

New major air emissions in an attainment area

Requires New Source Performance Standards, BACT, Title V Operating Permit

New Source Review

Required for a new facility or a modified existing facility (>10%)

Federal regulation amendments

can be found in the Federal Register but are easiest to find on the Agencies website or from a regulation tracking service

Interim Status

In RCRA, a facility that predates RCRA but is pursuing a RCRA permit

FFCA

Federal Facilities Compliance Act (1992), provided a statutory basis for pursuing monetary penalties against Federal Facilities

HSWA

Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (RCRA) included hazardous waste used as fuel, financial responsibility, Minimum Technology Requirements (MTRs), and air emissions from TSDFs

Characteristic Waste

Reactive, Corrosive, Ignitable, Toxic

Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest

Includes the EPA ID number, the name of the primary transporter, the names of backup transporters, an ER number that must be answered 24/7, the name and address of the generator, the signature of the generator or an agent

Land Disposal Notification

Accompanies the waste shipment to a TSDF and includes an analysis of the ability to meet treatment standards

Rulemaking process

1. Congress enacts a law 2. Agency establishes a rulemaking schedule 3. Agency establishes a docket 4. Develop a concept for regulation 5. Publish proposed regulation in Fed Reg 6. Public hearing 7. Withdraw, make minor revisions or publish final regulation

Ways to reference a law

1. Short title (eg TSCA) 2. Public law citation (eg. PL 101-459 = 549th law of the 101 Congress) 3. United State Code (USC) (eg. 42USC§7402)

CDI averaging time

70 years

CDI

Chronic Daily Intake

Stormwater discharge application

Part A- Who and what
Part B- Where and how much

EPCRA hazard categories

Immediate (acute) health hazards, delayed (chronic) health hazards, and sudden releases of pressure

EPCRA Tier II reporting

Chemical inventory forms including chemical names and CAS numbers

Emergency response not required

When the release results in exposure to persons solely within the boundaries of the facility

TPQ

Threshold Planning Quantity, two values are listed, the first applies to materials with higher hazard properties and the second applies to lower hazard properties (40CFR355.30), the TPQ when equaled or exceeded subjects the facility to regulation under EPCRA

SPL

Sound Pressure Level, unweighted
SPL(total) = 10 log [ sum 10 (SPL/10)]
or weighted
SPL (total) = 10 log [sum 10 (SPL/10) (t(partial)/t(total)]

LOD

Limit of Detection, Should be at least 25% of the TLV for a air monitoring device to be acceptable for use

HI

Hazard Index,
HI= CDI/RfD
HI<1 is acceptable

RfD

Reference Dose,
RfD= NOAEL(or LOAEL)/(UF)(MF)
NOAEL= No observable adverse effect level
UF= Uncertainty Factor
MF=(Modifying Factors

NOAEL

No observable adverse effect level

PA/SI

Preliminary Assessment/ Site Inspection

RI/FS

Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study

ROD

Record of Decision

RD/RA

Remedial Design/ Remedial Action

NPL

National Priorities List, Superfund

Nitric Oxide

Nitric oxide exists in equilibrium with nitrogen tetroxide in the ambient atmosphere, is colorless, is a dissociation product of nitrogen trioxide and is an irritant of the eyes and mucous membranes

Polyvinyl alcohol

PVA, A material used in PPE, very effective against hydrocarbons but dissolves in water

HVL

Half Value (radiation), if the HVL of lead is 0.33 cm and you double the thickness you reduce the exposure to 1/4 of the original exposure

NFPA Class B fire

Oil, gasoline, paint

NFPA Class II combustible liquid

flash point >= 100oF but less than 140oF

BLEVE

Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion. A rapid pressure increase in a confined vessel that results in a sudden release of pressure as the vessel ruptures

Foam agents

Suitable for NFPA Class A and Class B fires

Oxygen deficient atmosphere

19.5% (O2/vol) or less

PNL

Perceived noise level, a noise rating associated with airports

CNR

Composite noise level, a noise rating associated with airports

NEF

Noise exposure forecast, a noise rating associated with airports

Sound parameters

Sound is characterized by pressure, power, and intensity

Audible range for humans

between 16 Hz and 20,000 Hz frequencies

ISO 14000 standards

Two general categories: Organizational evaluation standards and Product and Process evaluation standards

ISO 14000 parts

Environmental Auditing (EA), Environmental Management Systems (EMS) and Life cycle assessment (LCA)

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