an agricultural estate run by a lord and worked by peasants
peasants legally bound to the land
an economic system based on money, rather than barter999
an economic system in which people invested in trade and goods in order to make profits
a finished piece in a craftsman's craft
a heavy, wheeled plow with an iron plowshare.
area along the coast if present-day Belgium and northern France. Was known for its much desired, high quality woolen cloth.
merchants and artisans of the cities and towns of northern Europe. Came from German word meaning "a walled enclosure."
members of the wealthiest and most powerful families
emerged as a town with close trading ties to the Byzantine Empire. Developed a mercantile fleet and had become a major trading center.
Book of Hours
personal prayer books that often contained calenders noting important dates of the year
lay people chose nominees to church offices and gave them the symbols of their office
Pope Gregory VII
fought to fight lay investiture. Had been convinced that he had been chosen by God to reform the church. He said that the pope's authority should extend to all the world, including its leaders.
forbids priests from giving sacraments and religious rights to a certain group of people or country
the denial of basic church doctrines
the product of the church's desire to have a method of discovering and dealing with heretics
usually bones of saints or objects connected with saints that were considered worthy of worship because they connected the earthly world with God.
disputed with Pope Gregory VII because the German serfdom was based on appointing highly-ranked clerics as their vassals in order to use them as administrators. Without it, the king couldn't maintain his power over the other German nobles.
struggle between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII
Concordat of Worms
an elected bishop had to pay homage to his lord, the king. The king, in turn, gave him the symbols of temporal(earthly) office.
Pope Innocent III
his reign is when the Catholic Church reached its height of political power. Began to issue interdicts in order to attain ruling over the world.
founded by monks who were unhappy about the lack of discipline in their monastaries. LIVED A VERY SIMPLE LIFE. Contrary to Benedictine monks, who prayed for hours inside of the monacstary, Cisterians took prayer to people outside of it.
Saint Bernard of Clairvaux
Hildegard of Bingwn
became abbess of a religious house for females in western Germany
the study of religion and God
tried to combine faith and reason.
the language of everyday speech in a particular region
Saint Thomas Aquinas
made the most famous attempt to reconcile Aristotle with the doctrines of Christianity. Best known for his "Summa Theologica." Epitimizes scholasticism, and is a book organized according to logic.
the most devastating natural disaster in European history. The most common form was the bubonic plague.
hostility toward Jews.
when there were two popes in the Church, that divided Europe.
new monarchies of France, England, and Spain at the end of the fifteenth century
an annual direct tax, usually on land or property.
Pope Boniface VIII and King Philip IV
conflict about taxes. Philip said that he had the right to tax the clergy of France. The pope said that they shouldn't pay taxes.
called for an end to the corruption of the clergy and the excessive power of the papacy within the Catholic church.
English king who participated in the power of Agincourt
location of the first major battle of the Hundred Years War.
battle, in France.