chapter 4

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Epithelial membranes

covering of an organ that contains an epithelial tissue layer and a connective tissue layer

mucous membrane, serous membrane, cutaneous membrane

three types of epithelial membranes

epithelial membranes and connective tissue membranes

2 types of body tissue membranes

cutaneous membrane

skin; only dry membrane; outermost protective boundary

mucous membrane

Lines all body cavities that open to the exterior body surface; often adapted for absorption or secretion

Serous Membranes

Lines open body cavities that are closed to the exterior of the body; _______ layers separated by ______ fluid; two layers to add extra protection; fluid prevents friction

Peritoneum

serous membrane found in abdominal cavity

pleura

serous membrane found around lungs

Pericardium

serous membrane found around heart

synovial membrane

connective tissue membrane; found in movable joints (where bone meets bone); lines fibrous capsules surrounding joints; secretes synovial fluid

Skin derivatives

small structures found within the skin; e.g. sweat glands and oil glands in dermis, hairs, nails

epidermis

outer layer of skin; often keratinized (hardened by keratin); contains no blood vessels

hypodermis

layer underneath dermis; not part of the skin; anchors skin to underlying organs; composed mostly of adipose tissue

stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale

layers of epidermis, outside to inside

stratum basale

bottom-most layer of epidermis where cells undergo mitosis

Stratum lucidum

layer of epidermis which only occurs in thick skin, like palms of hands and soles of feet

Stratum corneum

top layer of epidermis; found all places where skin is found; shingle-like dead cells

melanin

Pigment that contributes most to skin color; yellow, black, or brown

melanocytes

type of cell melanin is produced by

stratum basale

where melanin is found

genetics and exposure to sunlight

amt of melanin produced depends on...

protects skin from UV rays

function of melanin

freckle

pocket of concentrated melanocytes

papillary and reticular layers

2 layers of dermis

dermal papillae

projections of papillary layer of dermis which are responsible for fingerprints

Papillary layer

top, thin layer of dermis; pain receptors and capillary loops

reticular layer

layer which makes up most of the dermis; blood vessels; glands; nerve receptors

Carotene

Orange-yellow pigment from some vegetables; gets absorbed into skin through blood vessels, which can make you an orange color

Hemoglobin

Red coloring from blood cells in dermis capillaries; oxygen content determines the extent of red coloring; when it is bound to blood, skin turns bright red

erythema

fancy word for redness due to embarrassment (blushing), fever, hypertension (high blood pressure), inflammation, or allergy

Pallor/blanching

whitening of skin due to emotional stress (fear, anger) or anemia (lack of iron), low blood pressure, or impaired blood flow

Jaundice

abnormal yellow skin tone due to liver disorder in which bile pigments are absorbed by body tissues

Bruises

sites where blood has clotted in tissue spaces (clotted blood masses=hematomas)

Sebaceous glands

produce oil, most with ducts that empty into hair follicles, glands are activated at puberty, found everywhere except your palms and the soles of your feet

sebum

oil, lubricant for skin, kills bacteria

Sweat glands

widely distributed in skin; type of gland

eccrine and apocrine

2 types of sweat glands

eccrine

type of sweat gland that opens via duct to pore on skin surface (secretes sweat through pores); found everywhere, including palms of hands and soles of feet

Apocrine

type of sweat gland where ducts empty into hair follicles (secretes sweat through hair follicles); found in axillary (armpit and genital) regions

sweat

composed of mostly water, in addition to metabolic waste and fatty acids and proteins in the case of apocrine; function is to help dissipate heat, excrete waste products; acidic nature inhibits bacteria growth; odor is from associated bacteria

hair follicle

what produces hair; not part of the actual hair

hair

Consists of hard, keratinized epithelial cells

hair root

_______ is enclosed in follicle

Matrix of hair

(growth zone)- where stratum basale epithelial cells divide to form a hair

bulb

base of hair

shaft

part of hair you can see

medulla

centermost layer of hair

cortex

second layer of hair

cuticle

outermost layer of hair, most heavily keratinized so it can be the strongest layer

bulb

where melanocytes are found in hair

melanocytes

what provides pigment for hair color

dermal and epidermal sheath

2 layers of hair follicle

epidermal sheath

innermost layer of follicle which provides cell with epithelial cells

dermal sheath

outermost layer of follicle

Arrector pilli

smooth muscle that attaches to follicle; when it contracts, goose bumps appear on skin surface

Nails

Scale-like modifications of the epidermis; more heavily keratinized than hair

nail bed

what stratum basale extends beneath in nails

nail matrix

thickened, proximal area responsible for nail growth

lack of pigment

why are nails colorless?

lunula

region over thickened nail matrix that appears as a white crescent

Free edge

Part of nail hanging off the skin that you file/cut

free edge, body, and root

3 parts of nail

nail folds

what borders of nail are overlapped by

cuticle

thick, proximal nail fold

Acne

common skin disease that causes pimples caused by hair follicles under the skin clogging

Boils & Carbuncles

painful, pus-filled bumps that form under the skin caused by bacteria infecting one or more hair follicle

boil

red, tender lumps that grow larger as they fill with pus

Carbuncle

cluster of boils

Psoriasis

common, chronic (long-lasting) skin disease in which cells build up rapidly on the surface of the skin, forming thick, silvery scales and itchy, dry, red patches that are sometimes painful; cause unknown; symptoms triggered by trauma, infection, stress

Burns

Tissue damage & cell death caused by heat, electricity, UV radiation, or chemicals

first degree burn

burn where only epidermis is damaged; skin is red and swollen

second degree burn

burn where epidermis and upper dermis are damaged; skin is red with blisters

third degree burn

burn which destroys entire skin layer (epidermis & dermis & possibly hypodermis); burn is gray-white or black

Basal cell carcinoma

Least malignant, most common type of skin cancer (abnormal cell mass); arises from the stratum basale layer of the epidermis; appears as an abnormal mole on the skin

Malignant Melanoma

Most deadly form of skin cancer; cancer of the melanocytes (melanin-producing cells in stratum basale); metastasizes (spreads) rapidly to lymph nodes & blood vessels; detection uses ABCD rule to identify abnormal moles

asymmetry, border irregularity, color, diameter

ABCD rule

Athlete's foot

infection that develops in the moist areas between your toes and sometimes on other parts of the foot; causes itching, stinging & burning

Cold sores

(also called fever blisters) fluid-filled lesions caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 infection; appears as red blisters on lip

Contact dermatitis

inflammation of the skin (red, itchy rash) caused by direct contact to certain substances, such as soap, cosmetics, jewelry, or weeds, including poison ivy or poison oak

impetigo

highly contagious skin condition that mainly affects infants and children; appears as red sores on the face, especially around the child's nose and mouth; caused by bacteria entering the skin through cuts or insect bites

Alopecia

hair loss, or baldness; cause- can be hereditary or caused by hormonal changes in body, certain medications (e.g., chemotherapy), thyroid problems, lack of nutrients, chemical hair treatments, etc.

papilla

hair structure that provides blood supply to the matrix in the hair bulb

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