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opt/i, opt/o

Means eyes/sight (1)

Optic/o

Means pertaining to the eyes (2)

Opthalm/o

Means eyes (3)

Ir/i, ir/o

Means iris (1)

Irid/o

Means iris (2)

Irit/o

Means iris (3)

Eyes

Receptor organs for the sense of sight

Phac/o, phak/o

Means lens

lens

clear, flexible, curved structure that focuses rays of light (images) on retina

Retin/o

Means retina

Retina

Converts light images into electrical impulses and transmits them to the brain. Sensitive innermost layer that lines the posterior segment of the eye

dacryocyst/o

means lacrimal apparatus (1)

lacrim/o

means lacrimal apparatus (2)

lacrimal apparatus

consists of accessory structures of the eyes that produce, store, and remove tears

acous/o, acoust/o

means ears (1)

audi/o, audit/o

means ears (2)

ot/o

means ears (3)

ears

receptor organs for the sense of hearing; helps maintain balance

pinn/i

means outer ear

outer ear

transmits sound waves to the middle ear

myring/o

means middle ear (1)

tympan/o

means middle ear (2)

middle ear

transmits sound waves to the inner ear

labyrinth/o

means inner ear/ labyrinth

inner ear

receives sound vibrations and transmits them to the brain

adnexa of the eyes

structures outside the eyeball, including: orbit, eye muscles, eyelids, eyelashes, conjunctiva, and lacrimal apparatus

adnexa

means appendages or accessory structures of an organ

orbit

bony cavity of the skull that contains and protects eyeball and its associated muscles, blood vessels, and nerves

eye muscles

6 major ones that come in 3 pairs and are attached to the eye

binocular vision

musces of both eyes work together in coordinated movement to enable this

bin-

means two

ocul

means eye

-ar

means pertaining to

upper and lower eyelids

________________ of each eye help protect the eyeball from foreign matter, excessive light, and injuries due to other causes

canthus

where the eyelids meet nearest the nose

epicanthus

a vertical fold of skin on either side of the nose

outer canthus

where the eyelids meet farthest from the nose

tarsus

framework within the upper and lower eyelids that provides necessary stiffness and shape

tars/o

means (edge of) eyelid

-us

singular noun ending

eyebrows and eyelashes

prevent foreign matter from reaching the eyes.

cilia

eyelashes consist of small hairs known as _________

conjunctiva

transparent mucous membrane that lines the underside of each eyelid & continues to form a protective covering over the exposed surface of the eyeball

lacrimal glands

secrete lacrimal fluid; located on the underside of the upper eyelid just above the outer corner of each eye

lacrimal fluid

function of this is to maintain moisture on the anterior surface of the eyeball. Blinking distributes this

lacrimal canal

consists of a duct at the inner corner of each eye. These ducts collect tears and empty them into the lacrimal sacs

lacrimal sac

an enlargement of the upper portion of the lacrimal duct

lacrimal duct

the passageway that drains excess tears into the nose

eyeball

a 1" sphere with only about 1/6 of its surface visible

ocular

means pertaining to the eye

extraocular

means outside the eyeball

extra-

means outside

intraocular

means within the eyeball

intra-

means within

sclera

maintains shape of the eye and protects delicate inner layers of tissue. Tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outer later of the eye, except for part covered by cornea. White of the eye

scler/o

means white of the eye

choroid

opaque middle layer of eyeball that contains many blood vessels and provides blood supply for entire eye

anterior segment

makes up the front one-third of the eyeball; divided into anterior and posterior chambers

anterior chamber

located behind the cornea and in front of the iris

posterior chamber

located behind the iris and in front of the ligaments holding the lens in place

aqueous fluid

fills anterior and posterior chambers. Helps eye maintain shape and nourishes intraocular structures

trabecular meshwork

constantly filters and drains aqueous fluid, above canal of Schlemm

canal of Schlemm

constantly filters and drains aqueous fluid, below trabecular meshwork

intraocular pressure

measurement of the fluid pressure inside the eye; rate at which aqueous fluid enters and leaves the eye regulates this pressure

posterior segment

makes up the remaining two-thirds of the eye; lined with retina and filled with vitreous gel

vitreous gel

soft, clear, jelly-like mass that contains millions of fine fibers that helps maintain shape of eye

rods and cones

in retina, receive images that have passed through lens of eye and converted into nerve impulses and transmitted to the brain via optic nerve

macula

clearly defined yellow area in the center of the retina; area of sharpest central vision

fovea centralis

a pit in the middle of the macula; color vision is best in this area because it contains high concentration of cones and no rods

optic disk

small region in the eye where nerve endings of the retina enter the optic nerve. Doesn't contain any rods or cones

optic nerve

transmits these nerve impulses from retina to brain

uveal tract

pigmented layer of eye, has rich blood supply and consists of choroid, ciliary body, and iris

ciliary body

located within the choroid, set of muscles and suspensory ligaments that adjust the thickness of the lens to refine the focus of light rays on the retina
-produces aqueous fluid that fills anterior segment of eye
-thickens to focus on nearby object
-thins to focus on distant objects

iris

colorful muscular layer of the eye that surrounds pupil and controls the amount of light allowed to enter through the pupil

cornea

transparent outer surface of the eye covering the iris and pupil. Primary structure focusing light rays entering the eye

pupil

black circular opening in the center of the iris that permits light to enter eye

accommodation

process whereby the eyes make adjustments for seeing objects at various distances. Adjustments include contraction and dilation of pupil, movement of eyes, and changes in shape of lens

convergence

simultaneous inward movement of the eyes toward each other. Occurs in effort to maintain single binocular vision as an object comes nearer

emmetropia

normal relationship between refractive power of the eye and the shape of the eye that enables light rays to focus correctly on the retina

emmetr

means in proper measure

-opia

means vision condition

refraction

ability of lens to bend light rays so they focus on the retina

visual acuity

ability to distinguish object details and shape at a distance

ophthalmologist

physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the eyes and vision

-ologist

means specialist

optometrist

holds a Doctor of Optometry degree and specializes in measuring the accuracy of vision to determine whether corrective lenses are needed

-metrist

means one who measures

blepharoptosis

drooping of the upper eyelid that is usually due to paralysis

blephar/o

means eyelid

-ptosis

means dropping or sagging

chalazion

localized swelling inside the eyelid resulting from obstruction a sebaceous gland

ectropion

the eversion (turning outward) of the edge of the eyelid, usually affects lower lid

ec-

means out

trop

means turn

-ion

means condition

entropion

inversion (turning inward) of the edge of an eyelid, usually effects lower lid

en-

means in

hordeolum

pus-filled lesion on the eyelid resulting from an infection in a sebaceous gland

periorbital edema

swelling surrounding the eye or eyes that can cause eyes to be partially closed

orbit

means eyeball/ bony socket

conjunctivitis

an inflammation of the conjunctiva that is usually caused by an infection or allergy

conjunctiv

means conjuctiva

dacryoadenitis

an inflammation of the lacrimal gland that can be caused by a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection. Symptoms include sudden severe pain, redness, and pressure in orbit of eye

dacry/o

means tear

aden

means gland

subconjunctival hemorrhage

bleeding between the conjunctiva and sclera, creates red area over white of eye

xerophthalmia

drying of eye surfaces including the conjunctiva

xer

means dry

-ia

means abnormal condition

iritis

inflammation of the uveal tract affecting primarily structures in the front of the eye

corneal abrasion

an injury, such as a scratch or irritation, to the outer layers of the cornea

corneal ulcer

a pitting of the cornea caused by an infection or injury

keratitis

inflammation of the cornea, can be due to

kerat/o

means cornea (also means hard)

pterygium

a benign growth on the cornea that can become large enough to distort vision

scleritis

an inflammation of the sclera

scler

means white of eye

synechia

an adhesion that binds the iris to an adjacent structure such as the lens or cornea

anisocoria

condition in which the pupils are unequal in size

anis/o

means unequal

cor

means pupil

cataract

the loss of transparency of the lens that causes a progressive loss of visual clarity; usually associated with age

Pupils are Equal, Round, Responsive to Light and Accommodation

PERRLA stands for:

retinal detachment

retina is pulled away from its attachment to the choroid in the back of the eye

floaters

particles of cellular debris that float in the vitreous fluid and cast shadows on the retina. Occur normally with aging

nystagmus

an involuntary, constant, rhythmic movement of the eyeball that can be congenital or caused by a neurological injury or drug use

papilledema

swelling and inflammation of the optic nerve at the point of entrance into the eye through the optic disk

papill

means nipple-like

-edema

means swelling

retinal tear

occurs when a hole develops in the retina as it is pulled away from its normal position

retinitis pigmentosa

progressive degeneration of the retina that affects night and peripheral vision; detected by presence of dark pigmented spots in retina

vitreous detachment

occurs as aging causes the vitreous gel to slowly shrink. This shrinkage causes fine fibers within the gel pull on the retinal surface. Fibers usually break, allowing vitreous to separate and shrink

glaucoma

group of diseases characterized by an increased intraocular pressure that cause damage to the retinal nerve fibers and the optic nerve. Pressure is caused by a blockage in the flow of fluid out of the eye. If untreated can cause loss in peripheral vision and eventually blindness.

open-angle glaucoma

trabecular meshwork gradually becomes blocked, which causes buildup of pressure. Symptoms aren't noticed by patient until optic nerve has been damaged

closed-angle glaucoma

opening between the cornea and iris narrows so that fluid cannot reach the trabecular meshwork. Narrowing causes sudden increase in intraocular pressure that produces severe pain, nausea, redness, and blurred vision

macular degeneration

gradually progressive condition in which the macula at the center of the retina is damaged, resulting in loss of central vision, but not in total blindness

macul

means spot

diplopia

perception of two images of a single object

dipl

means double

-opia

means vision

hemianopia

blindness in one-half of the visual field

hemi-

means half

an-

means without

monochromatism

inability to distinguish colors

mon/o

means one

chromat

means color

-ism

means condition

nyctalopia

condition in which an individual with normal daytime vision has difficulty seeing at night

nyctal

means night

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