What is matter?
anything that has mass and takes up space. All living and non-living things are made up of matter.
What two things determine the state (form) of matter?
The arrangement and movement of the particles in
matter determine its form, or state.
Name a substance that you can find naturally in all three states.
water (solid: ice, liquid: water, gas: vapor)
What is a solid?
A solid is matter that has a definite shape and usually takes up a definite amount of space.
Explain a SOLID's particles and how they move.
Its particles are CLOSELY PACKED together. The particles have some energy. They MOVE back and forth, but they do not change places with each other.
What is a liquid?
Matter that does not have a definite shape, but takes up a definite amount of space.
Explain a LIQUID's particles and how they move.
In a liquid, the particles are NOT held together as tightly as in a solid. The particles of a liquid are able to SLIDE past one another.
Explain GAS particles and how they move.
The particles in a gas are very FAR APART from one another and move in ALL directions. Particles in a gas move around more EASILY and QUICKLY than those in a solid.
What is mass?
Mass is the measure of the amount of matter in an object. The mass of an object does not change unless matter is added to or removed from it.
True or False: The mass of an object does NOT change unless matter is added to or removed from it.
The only way to CHANGE the total mass of an object is to either ___ matter or ____ ____ matter.
add, take away
Some of the metric units that are used to measure mass are ___(mg), gram (g), and ___ (kg).
1,000 milligrams are equal to __ gram.
1,000 grams are equal to __ kilogram.
1,000 mg = 1 gram
1,000 g = 1 kg
True or False: Volume is a property of matter that can't be measured.
False. Volume CAN be measured using the metric system (cm, in, mm)
Name two ways to measure the volume of a shoe box.
*You can count the number of unit cubes that fill it.
*You can also use a ruler to measure the length, width, and height of the box, then multiply the three measurements to find the volume.
If a box measures 5 cm long, 2 cm wide,
and 8 cm high, what is its volume?
The volume of the box is 5 cm × 2 cm × 8 cm, or 80 cubic centimeters.
Substances with the greatest amount of densities are found near the (top or bottom) of the graduated cylinder?
True or False: Substances in a mixture can't be separated.
False. They CAN be separated because they are not chemically combined. Example: trail mix (you can separate the nuts, raisin, etc.)
True or False: All substances in a mixture that are separated out have the same properties as before they were mixed.
The most common kind of solution is dissolving a ___ into a ___.
solid into a liquid (salt in water)
In a solution of salt and water, the salt is the ___ and the water is the ___.
salt = solute
water = solvent
True or False: All solutions are liquid.
*The air we breathe is a solution made up of gases.
*Steel used for buildings is a solution made up of carbon and iron combined to form steel.
*Club soda is a solution made up of gas dissolved in liquid.
The measure of the amount of one substance to dissolve in another substance is called ___.
True or False: Sometimes you can speed of the process of dissolving a solid in a liquid by raising the temperature of the solvent (liquid).
True! Sugar dissolves much more quickly in warmer water.
True or False: Crushing a solute (like a sugar cube) doesn't make it dissolve any quicker in a solvent (like water).
False! Crushing a solute into tiny particles makes them dissolve quicker than when the particles remain packed tightly together.
The melting point is the temperature at which a substance changes from a ___ to a ___.
solid to a liquid
In a ____ change, particles from one substance are changed in some way to form a new substance with different properties.
An example of ____ change is when you find a rusted nail that has been left in water over time.
How is burning wood in a fireplace an example of chemical change?
The burning wood reacts quickly with oxygen in the air, leaving new substances: ashes, carbon dioxide gas, and water vapor.
True or False: The letter or letters in the symbol on the Periodic Table sometimes come from the element's Latin name.