Science: Matter

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What is matter?

anything that has mass and takes up space. All living and non-living things are made up of matter.

What is matter made of?

tiny particles that move and are arranged a different ways.

What two things determine the state (form) of matter?

The arrangement and movement of the particles in
matter determine its form, or state.

The three most familiar states of matter are:

solid, liquid, and gas.

Name a substance that you can find naturally in all three states.

water (solid: ice, liquid: water, gas: vapor)

What is a solid?

A solid is matter that has a definite shape and usually takes up a definite amount of space.

Explain a SOLID's particles and how they move.

Its particles are CLOSELY PACKED together. The particles have some energy. They MOVE back and forth, but they do not change places with each other.

What is a liquid?

Matter that does not have a definite shape, but takes up a definite amount of space.

Explain a LIQUID's particles and how they move.

In a liquid, the particles are NOT held together as tightly as in a solid. The particles of a liquid are able to SLIDE past one another.

True or False: Liquid takes the shape of any container you pour it into.

True

Water vapor and several other gases make up the ___ that is all around us.

air

True or False: Gas takes the shape of its container.

True

True or False: Gas expands to fill the container it is in.

True

Explain GAS particles and how they move.

The particles in a gas are very FAR APART from one another and move in ALL directions. Particles in a gas move around more EASILY and QUICKLY than those in a solid.

What is mass?

Mass is the measure of the amount of matter in an object. The mass of an object does not change unless matter is added to or removed from it.

True or False: The mass of an object does NOT change unless matter is added to or removed from it.

True

A ____ ____ is used to compare a mass that you know with one that you don't know.

pan balance

When the pans of a pan balance are level, the two masses are ____.

equal

The only way to CHANGE the total mass of an object is to either ___ matter or ____ ____ matter.

add, take away

The ___ is the base unit of mass in the metric system.

gram

Some of the metric units that are used to measure mass are ___(mg), gram (g), and ___ (kg).

milligram, kilogram

1,000 milligrams are equal to __ gram.
1,000 grams are equal to __ kilogram.

1,000 mg = 1 gram
1,000 g = 1 kg

Volume is the amount of ___ that matter takes up.

space

True or False: Volume is a property of matter that can't be measured.

False. Volume CAN be measured using the metric system (cm, in, mm)

Name two ways to measure the volume of a shoe box.

*You can count the number of unit cubes that fill it.
*You can also use a ruler to measure the length, width, and height of the box, then multiply the three measurements to find the volume.

If a box measures 5 cm long, 2 cm wide,
and 8 cm high, what is its volume?

The volume of the box is 5 cm × 2 cm × 8 cm, or 80 cubic centimeters.

1 meter = ___ cm and ___ mm.

100 cm and 1,000 mm

1 decimeter = ___ cm

10 cm

1 cm = ___ mm

10 mm

1 decameter = ___ meters

10 meters

1 hectometer = ___

100 meters

1 kilometer = ___

1,000 meters

True or False: Liquids have a definite shape.

False. Liquids take on the shape of their containers.

To measure liquids, you use a ___ ____.

graduated cylinder

The standard units of measure used for liquids are ___.

mililiters and liters

The amount of mass in a certain volume of matter is called ___.

density

How do you determine density of a substance?

divide its mass by its volume

An object's density determines whether it ___ or ___ in water.

floats or sinks

Substances with the greatest amount of densities are found near the (top or bottom) of the graduated cylinder?

bottom

A ___ is a combination of two or more substances.

mixture

True or False: Substances in a mixture can't be separated.

False. They CAN be separated because they are not chemically combined. Example: trail mix (you can separate the nuts, raisin, etc.)

True or False: All substances in a mixture that are separated out have the same properties as before they were mixed.

True

One or more substances that are dissolved in another substance is called a ____.

solution

The most common kind of solution is dissolving a ___ into a ___.

solid into a liquid (salt in water)

The substance that is dissolved in a solution is called the ___.

solute

A ___ is a substance that takes in or dissolves the other substance in a solution.

solvent

In a solution of salt and water, the salt is the ___ and the water is the ___.

salt = solute
water = solvent

True or False: All solutions are liquid.

False.
*The air we breathe is a solution made up of gases.
*Steel used for buildings is a solution made up of carbon and iron combined to form steel.
*Club soda is a solution made up of gas dissolved in liquid.

The measure of the amount of one substance to dissolve in another substance is called ___.

solubility

Sand does not dissolve in water. Therefore, the solubility of sand in water is ___.

zero

True or False: Sometimes you can speed of the process of dissolving a solid in a liquid by raising the temperature of the solvent (liquid).

True! Sugar dissolves much more quickly in warmer water.

True or False: Crushing a solute (like a sugar cube) doesn't make it dissolve any quicker in a solvent (like water).

False! Crushing a solute into tiny particles makes them dissolve quicker than when the particles remain packed tightly together.

A change in the size, shape, or state of matter is called a ___ change.

physical

Making a mixture (such as trail mix) is an example of a ____ change.

physical

Tearing, cutting, and folding paper are examples of ___ change.

physical

The melting point is the temperature at which a substance changes from a ___ to a ___.

solid to a liquid

The boiling point is the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a ___.

gas

The freezing point is the temperature at which a substance changes from liquid to a ___.

solid

In a ____ change, particles from one substance are changed in some way to form a new substance with different properties.

chemical

An example of ____ change is when you find a rusted nail that has been left in water over time.

chemical

How is burning wood in a fireplace an example of chemical change?

The burning wood reacts quickly with oxygen in the air, leaving new substances: ashes, carbon dioxide gas, and water vapor.

___ are the simplest pure substances.

elements

True or False: There are more than 100 known elements.

True

Scientists have organized information about elements in a chart called the __ __.

periodic table

Each element in the Periodic Table has its own ___.

symbol

True or False: The letter or letters in the symbol on the Periodic Table sometimes come from the element's Latin name.

True

When most liquids are cooled to the freezing point, the tiny particles of matter in the liquid do what?
a) move closer together
b) move further apart
c) move out into the air

move closer together

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