# Science: Matter

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### What is matter?

anything that has mass and takes up space. All living and non-living things are made up of matter.

### What is matter made of?

tiny particles that move and are arranged a different ways.

### What two things determine the state (form) of matter?

The arrangement and movement of the particles in
matter determine its form, or state.

### The three most familiar states of matter are:

solid, liquid, and gas.

### Name a substance that you can find naturally in all three states.

water (solid: ice, liquid: water, gas: vapor)

### What is a solid?

A solid is matter that has a definite shape and usually takes up a definite amount of space.

### Explain a SOLID's particles and how they move.

Its particles are CLOSELY PACKED together. The particles have some energy. They MOVE back and forth, but they do not change places with each other.

### What is a liquid?

Matter that does not have a definite shape, but takes up a definite amount of space.

### Explain a LIQUID's particles and how they move.

In a liquid, the particles are NOT held together as tightly as in a solid. The particles of a liquid are able to SLIDE past one another.

True

air

True

True

### Explain GAS particles and how they move.

The particles in a gas are very FAR APART from one another and move in ALL directions. Particles in a gas move around more EASILY and QUICKLY than those in a solid.

### What is mass?

Mass is the measure of the amount of matter in an object. The mass of an object does not change unless matter is added to or removed from it.

True

pan balance

equal

gram

### Some of the metric units that are used to measure mass are ___(mg), gram (g), and ___ (kg).

milligram, kilogram

### 1,000 milligrams are equal to __ gram. 1,000 grams are equal to __ kilogram.

1,000 mg = 1 gram
1,000 g = 1 kg

space

### True or False: Volume is a property of matter that can't be measured.

False. Volume CAN be measured using the metric system (cm, in, mm)

### Name two ways to measure the volume of a shoe box.

*You can count the number of unit cubes that fill it.
*You can also use a ruler to measure the length, width, and height of the box, then multiply the three measurements to find the volume.

### If a box measures 5 cm long, 2 cm wide, and 8 cm high, what is its volume?

The volume of the box is 5 cm × 2 cm × 8 cm, or 80 cubic centimeters.

### 1 meter = ___ cm and ___ mm.

100 cm and 1,000 mm

10 cm

10 mm

10 meters

100 meters

1,000 meters

### True or False: Liquids have a definite shape.

False. Liquids take on the shape of their containers.

### The standard units of measure used for liquids are ___.

mililiters and liters

density

### How do you determine density of a substance?

divide its mass by its volume

floats or sinks

bottom

mixture

### True or False: Substances in a mixture can't be separated.

False. They CAN be separated because they are not chemically combined. Example: trail mix (you can separate the nuts, raisin, etc.)

True

solution

### The most common kind of solution is dissolving a ___ into a ___.

solid into a liquid (salt in water)

solute

solvent

salt = solute
water = solvent

### True or False: All solutions are liquid.

False.
*The air we breathe is a solution made up of gases.
*Steel used for buildings is a solution made up of carbon and iron combined to form steel.
*Club soda is a solution made up of gas dissolved in liquid.

solubility

zero

### True or False: Sometimes you can speed of the process of dissolving a solid in a liquid by raising the temperature of the solvent (liquid).

True! Sugar dissolves much more quickly in warmer water.

### True or False: Crushing a solute (like a sugar cube) doesn't make it dissolve any quicker in a solvent (like water).

False! Crushing a solute into tiny particles makes them dissolve quicker than when the particles remain packed tightly together.

physical

physical

physical

### The melting point is the temperature at which a substance changes from a ___ to a ___.

solid to a liquid

gas

solid

chemical

chemical

### How is burning wood in a fireplace an example of chemical change?

The burning wood reacts quickly with oxygen in the air, leaving new substances: ashes, carbon dioxide gas, and water vapor.

elements

True

periodic table

symbol

True

### When most liquids are cooled to the freezing point, the tiny particles of matter in the liquid do what? a) move closer together b) move further apart c) move out into the air

move closer together

Example: