has one or two lenses that work to enlarge and enhance images placed between the lower-most lens and the light source.
Simple Optical Microscope
uses one lens, the convex lens, in the magnifying process. This kind of microscope was used by Anton Van Leeuwenhoek during the late-sixteen and early-seventeenth centuries, around the time that the microscope was invented.
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Compound Optical Microscope
has two lenses, one for the eyepiece to serve the ocular perspective and one of short focal length for objective perspective. Multiple lenses work to minimize both chromatic and spherical aberrations so that the view is unobstructed and uncorrupted.
This is also known as the Dissecting Microscope, and uses two separate optical shafts (for both eyes) to create a three-dimensional image of the object through two slightly different viewpoints. This kind of microscope conducts microsurgery, dissection, watch-making, small circuit board manufacturing, etc.
This kind of microscope views objects from an inverted position than that of regular microscopes. The inverted microscope specializes in the study of cell cultures in liquid.
This kind of microscope features a polarizing filter, a rotating stage, and gypsum plate. Petrographic Microscopes specialize in the study of inorganic substances whose properties tend to alter through shifting perspective.
This kind of microscope consists of a single shaft with an eye piece at one end and an adjustable objective lens at the other. This old-style microscope has a case for easy carry.
This kind of microscope employs electron waves running parallel to a magnetic field providing higher resolution.
Scanning Probe Microscope
This kind of microscope measures interaction between a physical probe and a sample to form a micrograph. Only surface data can be collected and analyzed from the sample
Types of Scanning Probe Microscopes
Atomic Force Microscope, the Scanning Tunneling Microscope, the Electric Force Microscope, and the Magnetic Force Microscope.
Types of Electron Microscopes
Two Electron Microscopes are the Scanning Electron Microscope and the Transmission Electron Microscope.
Membrane enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Contains most genetic material. Control center of the cell
Generate the cell's energy in eukaryotic cells
specialized organelles found in all higher plant cells. These organelles contain the plant cell's chlorophyll, hence provide the green color. They have a double outer membrane. Within the stroma are other membrane structures - the thylakoids and grana (singular = granum) where photosynthesis takes place.
an infectious agent composed primarily of protein
a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of organisms
a large group of single-celled, prokaryote microorganisms.
a group of single-celled microorganisms. A single individual or species from this domain is called an archaeon (sometimes spelled "archeon"). They have no cell nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles within their cells.
a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (or moulds: see spelling differences), as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom
are a diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Reduces the effectiveness of the immune system. Transmitted through direct contact of a mucous membrane or the bloodstream with a bodily fluid containing HIV.
a highly contagious illness caused by primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV). spread easily through coughs or sneezes of ill individuals or through direct contact with secretions from the rash.
is a contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, caused primarily by rhinoviruses and coronaviruses. The common cold is the most frequent infectious disease in humans with on average two to four infections a year in adults and up to 6-12 in children.
acute febrile diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, which occur in the tropics, can be life-threatening, and are caused by four closely related virus serotypes of the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae transmitted to humans by the Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti or more rarely the Aedes albopictus mosquito.
Ebola hemhorragic fever
interferes with the endothelial cells lining the interior surface of blood vessels and with coagulation. As the blood vessel walls become damaged and destroyed, the platelets are unable to coagulate, patients succumb to hypovolemic shock. Ebola is transmitted through bodily fluids, while conjunctiva exposure may also lead to transmission.
There are five recognized species within the ebolavirus genus, which have a number of specific strains. The Zaire virus
viral disease caused by both herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). Infection with the herpes virus is categorized into one of several distinct disorders based on the site of infection. Oral herpes, the visible symptoms of which are colloquially called cold sores or fever blisters, infects the face and mouth. Oral herpes is the most common form of infection. Genital herpes, known simply as herpes, is the second most common form of herpes. Other disorders such as herpetic whitlow, herpes gladiatorum, ocular herpes (keratitis), cerebral herpes infection encephalitis, Mollaret's meningitis, neonatal herpes, and possibly Bell's palsy are all caused by herpes simplex viruses.
an infectious disease caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses), that affects birds and mammals. The most common symptoms of the disease are chills, fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness/fatigue and general discomfort. Sore throat, fever and coughs are the most frequent symptoms.
also known as Rubeola, is an infection of the respiratory system caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus. Morbilliviruses, like other paramyxoviruses, are enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses. Symptoms include fever, cough, runny nose, red eyes and a generalized, maculopapular, erythematous rash.
caused by the mumps virus
caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), one type of herpes virus, to which more than 90% of adults have been exposed.
Poliomyelitis. acute viral infectious disease spread from person to person, primarily via the fecal-oral route.
viral disease that causes acute encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in warm-blooded animals. neurotropic virus
an infectious disease unique to humans, caused by either of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
refers to a type of Encephalitis caused by a virus. an acute inflammation of the brain.
a pneumonia caused by a virus. a virus of the family Flaviviridae. Part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) antigenic complex of viruses, it is found in both tropical and temperate regions
an acute viral hemorrhagic disease. The virus is a 40 to 50 nm enveloped RNA virus with positive sense of the Flaviviridae family.
Protection and support of the cell
Contols substances that go in and out
Sweeps materials across the cell's surface
Enables a cell to propel itself and move in different directions
Many organelles have this between plasma membrane and nucleus
is the passageway for transport of materials within the cell
Sites of protein synthesis
Packs materials to be secreted by the cell
Site of cell respiration
Contain enzymes to digest ingested material or damaged tissue
Store chlorophyll which aids in photosynthesis
Used for storage, increase cell surface area
Organize spindle fibers during cell division (mitosis)
Cell shape and internal organization
Contol center of the cell
Assembly of subunits of ribosomes
encoding of hereditary information,
transcription of DNA into genes
Rod shaped bacteria
Ball shaped bacteria
Spiral shaped bacteria
Comma shaped bacteria
Ovoid shaped bacteria
The study of disease in human beings