Infection

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Infection

a condition that results when microorganisms cause injury to a host.

Colonization

a condition in which microorganinisms are present, but does not manifest any signs or symptoms of infection.

Infection control precautions

physical measures designed to curtain the spread of infectious dieases.

Name 2 types of infection control precautions.

Standard precaution and Transmission-Based Precautions.

Stardards (universal) Precautions

are measures for reducing the risk for microorganism transmission from both recognized and unrecognized sources of infection.

When do you follow standard precautions?

whenever there is the potential for contact with the following: blood, all body fluids, except sweat, nonintact skin, mucous membranes

Transmission-Based Precautions

measure for controlling the spread of infection with highly transmissible or epidemiologically important pathogens, also called isolation precautions.

Three types of transmission based precautions.

Airborne, droplet and contact precautions.

Airborne precautions

are measure that reduce the risk for transmitting airborne infectious agents. The block pathogen 5 microns or smaller that are present in droplet that remain in the air.

Droplet Precautions

measures that block pathogens within moist droplets larger than 5 microns. thery are used to reduce pathogens transmission from close contact ( usually 3 feet or lest) between and infected person or a person who is a carrier of a droplet-spread microorganism and others

Contact Precautions

measures used to block the transmission of pathogens by direct or indeirec contact

Infection control Measures

involves the use of personal protective equipment, garments that block the transfer of pathogen form one perso, place, or object to oneself or others

When removing personal protective equipment

the nurse should remove the most contaminated item first.

Washing hands

is the most important nursing action that be perform before leaving the client's room and before touching another client, personnel, environmental surgace or clients's items?

nosocomial infection

an infection acquired during hospitalization.

Saftey and Health hazards

OSHA was created to regulate and enforce

direct_transmission

a transmission mechanism in which the infectious agent is transferred directly into the body via touching or biting or kissing or sexual intercourse or by droplets entering the eye or nose or mouth

indirect_transmission

a transmission mechanism in which the infectious agent is transferred to the person by a fomite of vector

acquired immune deficiency

is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and suppresses the immune systemor

aerobic

requiring oxygen

airborne precautions

procedures used to prevent the spread of airborne pathogens

anaerobic

living or active in the absence of free oxygen

antisepses

the process of inhibiting the growth and multiplication of microorganisms

asepis

absence of contaminated materials

autoclave

a device for heating substances above their boiling point

bacteria

(microbiology) single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission

causative agent

pathogen, such as a bacterium or virus

cavitation

The cleaning process employed in an ultrasonic unit; bubbles explode to drive cleaning solution onto article being cleaned

chain of infection

Infectious agent, reservoir, portal of exit, means of transmission, portal of entry and susceptible host.

chemical disinfection

A process that destroys or kills pathogenic organisms.

clean

free from sepsis or infection

communicable disease

a disease that can be communicated from one person to another

contact precautions

practices used to prevent spread of disease by direct or indirect contact

contaminated

contaminated with infecting organisms

disinfection

treatment to destroy harmful microorganisms

droplet precautions

used when the disease-causing microorganism does not stay suspended in the air and travels only short distances after being expelled.

endogenous

the infection or disease originates within the body

exogenous

infection or disease originating outside of or external to the body

fomites

any substance or object that adheres to and transmits infectious material

fungi

group of simple, plantlike animals that live on dead organic matter

hepatitis b

inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is transmitted sexually or by exposure to contaminated blood or body fluids

hepatitis c

inflammation of th eliver caused by the HCV, transmitted by exposure to infected blood (rarely contracted sexually)

microorganisms

Living creatures that are too small to see with the naked eye

mode of transmission

way in which it can be transmitted to another reservoir or host where it can live

nonpathogens

a microorganism that is not capable of causing a disease

noscomial

Infection acquired in a hospital

opportunistic

infectoins that occur when the body's defenses are weak

pathogens

Microbes that cause disease

personal protective equipment

items such as gloves, gowns, masks, protective eyewear, and hair coverings are used to protect the nurse from infectious organisms

portal of entry

way the causative agent to enter a new reservoir or host

portal of exit

a way for the causative agent to escape form the reservoir in which it has been growing

protective isolation

technique used to provide care to patients requiring protection from organisms in the environment

protozoa

single celled organisms with the ability to move independently

reservoir

anything (a person or animal or plant or substance) in which an infectious agent normally lives and multiplies

rickettsiae

Parasitic microorganisms that live on other living organisms

standard precautions

measures to prevent exposure to blood or body fluids that may spread disease

sterile

free from germs

sterile field

A work area free of all pathogens and non-pathogens (including spores)

sterilization

the procedure of making some object free of live bacteria or other microorganisms (usually by heat or chemical means)

susceptible host

person likely to get an infection or disease ually because body defense are weak

transmission- based isolation precautions

method of caring for patients who have communicable diseases

ultrasonic

related to a frequency of sound vibrations beyond the normal hearing range; high in frequency

viruses

one of a large group of very small microorganisms, many of which cause disease

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

Disorder of the immune system caused by a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a retrovirus that destroys the body's ability to fight infection. As the disease progresses, the individual becomes overcome by disorders, including cancers and opportunistic infections. There is no known cure.

Acyclovir

Antiviral drug used in some herpes infections.

Airborne Transmission

Spread of disease-causing microorganisms over long distances through the air.

Amoebic Dysentery

Infectious intestinal disease caused by amoebas and characterized by inflammation of the mucous membrane of the colon.

Antibodies

Specific chemical produced by B cells of the immune system in response to an antigen.

Asepsis

Protecting against the infection caused by pathogenic microorganisms.

Barrier

Obstacle that exists to protect an individual from contact with blood or other potentially infected materials. Called personal protective equipment (PPE), they include gloves, masks, face shields, laboratory coats, protective eyewear, and gowns.

Bloodborne Pathogen

Microorganism capable of causing diseases found in blood or components of blood.

Carrier

Person who harbors a pathogenic organism and who is capable of transmitting the organism to others.

Caustic

Corrosive and burning, destructive to living tissue.

Cell-Mediated Immunity

The regulatory activities of T cells during the specific immune response.

Communicable

Contagious. Capable of being transmitted from one person to another either directly or indirectly.

Contact Transmission

Spread of disease causing microorganism by directly or indirectly touching the source of the infection or by touching an object or environmental surface.

Contracting

Acquiring an infection from pathogens.

Coryza

Acute inflammation of the membranes of the nose accompanied by profuse drainage.

Cough Etiquette

Coughing/sneezing into a tissue to prevent microorganisms from spreading to others. Includes properly disposing of tissue into waste receptacle and washing hands as soon as possible.

Debris

Remains of broken down or damaged cells or tissues.

Declination Form

Written formal refusal.

Droplet Transmission

Method of spreading disease from respiratory secretion through the air. Spread is usually confined to within 3 feet of the infected patient.

Epidemic

An infectious disease that attacks many persons at the same time in the same location.

Epidemiology

Field of science that studies the history, cause, and patterns of infectious diseases.

Excoriated

Abrasion of the epidermis by trauma, chemicals, burns or other causes.

Excretion

Waste matter. The elimination of waste products from the body.

Expectorate

Act of coughing up material from airways that lead to the lungs.

Fomite

Substance that absorbs and transmits infectious material; ie: contaminated items such as equipment.

Gross Contamination

Highly infectious material present.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Virus causing AIDS; it is a retrovirus that ultimately destroys the immune system cells.

Humoral Immunity

Immunity mediated by antibodies in body fluids such as plasma and lymph.

Immune System

Body's strong line of defense against invading microorganism. The body recognizes foreign substances as microorganisms and produces substances to fight them off. Antibodies, white blood cells, digestive enzymes, and resistance of the skin are examples.

Immunoglobulins

Family of proteins capable of acting as antibodies, thereby protecting individuals from pathogenic microorganisms; also, antibodies produced by the cells of the immune response system.

Immunomodulator

A substance that has the ability to change immune responses.

Immunosuppressed

Referring to a patient whose immune system is unhealthy because of a disease, medication, and genetics; these patients can be particularly susceptible to attack by microorganisms.

Infection Control

Methods to eliminate or reduce the transmission of infectious microorganisms.

Infectious Agent

Pathogen responsible for a specific infectious disease.

Inflammatory Response

Body's defense against the threat of infection or trauma. Characterized by redness, pain, heat, and swelling.

Inoculation

Injection.

Isolation

Separating a patient with certain infections or communicable diseases from other individuals.

Isolation Categories

System of seven categories developed by the CDC that isolates patients according to known infections. These categories have been condensed into three Transmission-Based Precautions based on air, contact, and droplet routes of transmission.

Jet Injection

An injection given under the skin without a needle, using the force of the liquid under pressure to pierce the skin.

Lesion

Injury or wound. A circumscribed area of issue that has been altered pathologically.

Lymphadenopathy

A disease of the lymph nodes.

Macular

Pertaining to a discoloration of a patch of skin, neither elevated nor depressed, of various colors, sizes, and shapes.

Malaise

Discomfort, uneasiness, or indisposition, often indicative of infection.

Malaria

Acute infectious disease caused by the presence of protozoan parasites within the red blood cells; usually comes from the bite of a female mosquito.

Medical Asepsis

Clean and free from infection.

Microorganism

Microscopic living creatures capable of transmission and reproduction in specific circumstances.

Morbidity

Number of cases of disease in specific population.

Mortality

The ratio of the number of death to a given population.

Normal Flora

Microorganisms that are normally present in a specific site.

Nosocomial

Infection acquired in a health care setting (hospital, nursing home, clinic).

Opportunistic Infections

An infection that results from a defective immune system that cannot defend itself from pathogens normally found in the environment.

Palliative

Measures taken to relieve symptoms of disease.

Papular

Pertaining to a small, red, elevated area of the skin, solid, and circumscribed.

Parenteral

Injection of a liquid substance into the body via a route other than the alimentary canal.

Pathogen

Disease-producing microorganism.

Pruritus

Itchiness.

Regulated Waste

Any waste that contains infectious material that would pose a threat due to possible transmission of pathogenic microorganisms.

Resistance

Ability of the immune system to resist or withstand an infectious disease.

Scabies

Infectious skin disease caused by the itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), which is transmitted by direct contact with infection people.

Scoop Technique

A one-handed technique used to scoop up and cover a used needle only if a sharp's container is not immediately available, the covering (cap) over the needle is not manipulated in any way; it is then disposed of in the nearest sharps container.

Secretion

Substance produced by the cells of glandular organs from materials in the blood.

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

A viral outbreak of a respiratory illness first reported in Asia in 2003; spread by close person-to-person contact and characterized by fever and respiratory symptoms.

Sharps

Needles or scalpels or other sharp instruments that are capable of causing a penetrating or puncture wound of the skin.

Solvent

Producing a solution, dissolving.

Spill Kit

Commercially packaged materials containing supplies and equipment needed to clean up a spill of biohazardous substance.

Sputum

Substance from the respiratory tract expelled by coughing.

Standard Precautions

Precautions developed in 1996 by the CDC that augment universal precautions and body substance isolation practices. They provide a wider range of protection and are used by time there is contact with blood, or non-intact skin. They are designed to protect all health care providers, patients, and visitors.

Transmission-Based Precautions

Second tier of CDC guidelines that applies to specific categories of patients and that include air, contact, and droplet precautions. Used in addition to Standard Precautions.

Trichomoniasis

Infestation with Trichomonas parasite, which may be transmitted through sexual intercourse.

Ultrasonic Cleaner

Machine that uses the energy of high-frequency sound waves that agitate to sanitize instruments before sterilization.

Universal Precautions

Guidelines established by the CDC for the protection of health care workers from infectious diseases.

Vaccine

Pharmacologic agent capable of producing artificial active immunity.

Vector

A carrier of disease, usually an insect, that is the causative organism of disease from infected to non-infected individuals.

Vesicular

Characterized by the presence of vesicles. Vesicles are blisters or other elevations on the skin.

Virulence

An organism's relative power and degree of pathogenicity.

BIOHAZARDOUS

anything that is harmful or potentiatly harmful to humans, other species, or the environment

BLOOD BORNE PATHOGEN

the term describing any infectious microorganisms present in blood and/or other body fluids and tissues. It is most commonly applied to the hep b virus and the human immunodeficiency virus.

CARRIER

a human or animal that is a resevior for microbes but does not have signs and symptons of infection

CAUSATIVE ORGANISM

the organism responsible for causing an infection

CHAIN OF INFECTION

a series of related events that lead to an infection

CHEMOPROPHYLAXIS

the use of a drug or chemical to prevent a disease (e.g. the taking of an appropriate medicine to prevent malaria)

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA)

the federal agency that regulates and monitors the inventory, storage, usage, techniques, and disposal of harmful substances to the environment

FOMITES

can be any inanimate object, material, or substance that acts as a transport agent for a microbe (towels, telephone, contaminated tissue)

HEPATITIS B (HBV)

a blood borne pathogen that causes a serve acute infection and may progess to chronic infection and liver damage. A double strand dna virus

HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENY VIRUS (HIV)

a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficieny sydrome (AIDS)

INFECTION

the presence and growth of a microorganism that produces tissue damage

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