← PSYO270-CH6: Observational Methods Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All naturalistic observation descriptive method in which observations are made in a natural social setting. Also called field observation. negative case analysis in field observation, an examination of observations that do not fit with the explanatory structure devised by the researcher. systematic observation variability in a set of scores that is the result of the independent variable; statistically, the variability of each group mean from the grand mean of all subjects coding system a set of rules used to categorize observations. reactivity a problem of measurement in which the measure changes the behaviour being observed. case study a descriptive account of behaviour, past history, and other relevant factors concerning a specific individual. psychobiography a type of case study in which the life of an individual is analyzed using psychological theory. archival research the use of existing sources of information for research. Sources include statistical records, survey archives, and written records. content analysis systematic analysis of the content of written records participant observation When the Observer assumes and active, insider role with participants in order to observe the setting from the 'inside' and experience events in same way as natural participants.