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What are testes?

Ovoid structures found in the scrotum

What are seminiferous tubules?

Tubes in the testes and are the specific location of meiosis

What are interstitial cells?

Produce and secrete male sex hormones

What are the parts of a sperm cell?

Head: nucleus, highly compacted chromatin containing 23 chromosomes
Acrosome: enzymes helping sperm penetrate egg
Midpiece: mitochondria
Tail (Flagellum): lashing movements that propel

What is the epididymis?

- Coiled, threadlike tube from top of testis, then upwards forming the vas deferens.
- Immature sperm cells are stored here to mature.

What is the seminal vesicle?

-Saclike structure near base of bladder
-Secretes slightly alkaline fluid regulating pH of tubes for sperm travel
-Secretions contain fructose (sperm energy) and prostaglandins (stimulates uterus contractions)

What is the function of nitric oxide?

To cause penis arteries to dilate

What is the function of ICSH?

Promotes development of testicular interstitial cells

What is the function of testosterone?

-Stimulates testes enlargement
-Stimulates male sex characteristics

What are male secondary sexual characteristics?

Body hair, enlargement of larynx and vocal cords, etc.

What are ovaries?

Solid, ovoid structures in shallow depressions in the lateral wall of the pelvic cavity

What are uterine tubes (fallopian tubes)?

Tubes extending into uterus coming from ovary.
Fimbriae: fringe the infundibulum
Infundibulum: encircles ovary

What is a cervix?

Lower 1/3 of uterus extending to upper vagina

What is an endometrium?

Inner mucosal layer in the uterus, contains tubular glands

What are vestibular glands?

Glands lying on either side of the vaginal opening

What causes menstrual flow?

Increasing concentration of estrogens

What does LH do?

Causes ovulation

Where does fertilization occur?

Fallopian tubes

What is a zygote?

A large fertilized egg

What is hCG ?

hormone produced early in pregnancy by the placenta; maintains early pregnancy

What is an inner cell mass?

Beginnings of the embryo

What is an embryo?

The offspring until the 8th week

What forms from ectoderm?

Flattened embryonic disks

What forms from chorion?

Chorionic villi (embryonic blood vessels)

What is the amnion?

The sac containing embryonic fluid
Formed in the 2nd week

What is the allantois?

An extraembryonic membranous sac involved in the formation of blood cells

What structures are found in the umbilical cord and what do they do?

Two umbilical arteries and one umbilical vein transports blood between embryo and placenta

What is the ductus arteriosus?

Fetal vessel connecting pulmonary trunk with aortic arch in lungs

What is surfactant?

Secretion that reduces surface tension to allow alveoli to remain open

What is oxytocin?

A stimulator of uterine contractions

What role does progesterone play in pregnancy and childbirth?

More progesterone inhibits birth, less initiates it.

What is the placenta?

Organ that attaches the embryo to the uterine wall and exchanges gasses and wastes

Allant-

sausage

Chorio-

skin

Fimb-

fringe

Follic-

small bag

Germ-

to bud or sprout

Lacun-

pool

Mens-

mouth

Mons-

an eminence

Morul-

mulberry

Nat-

to be born

Puber-

adult

Troph-

well fed

Umbil-

navel

Undifferentiated spermatogenic cells are called

spermatogonia.

The hormone responsible for the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics is

testosterone.

Meiosis occurs during

both spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

The cells in the testis that produce male sex hormones are called

interstitial cells.

In spermatogenesis, meiosis results in the formation of

four sperm cells with 23 chromosomes each

n the female reproductive cycle, menstrual flow occurs when the concentrations of

estrogen and progesterone are low.

Androgens are

male sex hormones

Which of the following can be fertilized to produce a zygote?

secondary oocyte

Testicular cancer is most likely to originate from

epithelial cells of seminiferous tubules.

A Pap smear is used to detect the presence of abnormal cells in the

Cervix

Women athletes sometimes experience disturbances in their menstrual cycles because of

decreased synthesis of estrogens.

The American Cancer Society recommends that women have their breasts examined with mammography at regular intervals after the age of

35.

The amount of testosterone produced is regulated by a positive feedback system.

False

FSH stimulates a primordial follicle to start the maturation process.

True

An increase in the hormone FSH at approximately day 14 causes ovulation.

False

Endometriosis can result in the formation of fibrous tissue around the ovaries and can prevent ovulation or obstruct the uterine tubes.

true

Sperm cells are produced by the germinal epithelial cells that line the ______________.

seminiferous tubules

Following ovulation, the follicular cells of the ovary enlarge to form a structure called ______________.

corpus luteum

.
__________ is the process by which egg cells are formed.

Oogenesis

Which of the following provides the main source of energy for a newborn during its first few days?

Fat

The placenta is composed of tissues from the

Mother and Embryo

Human chorionic gonadotropin is secreted by the

Embryo

The placental membrane is composed of

a double layer of epithelial cells.

The external reproductive organs can be distinguished by the _____ week of development

5th

The cells of a blastocyst that give rise to the body of the developing offspring constitute the

inner cell

Blood rich in oxygen and nutrients is transported from the placenta to the fetus in a(an)

umbilical vien

The foramen ovale is an opening that allows fetal blood to pass from the

right atrium to the left atrium.

The fetal blood that passes through the ductus venosus is relatively

high in oxygen and nutrients.

Ductus arteriosus allows fetal blood to move from the

pulmonary artery into the aorta.

The substance used to induce the development of ovarian follicles during the in vitro fertilization procedure is most likely

human menopausal gonadotropin.

Drugs ingested by a pregnant woman most likely reach her fetus by passing through the

placental membrane.

Teratogens are substances that

cause congenital malformations.

Following birth, the infant's metabolic rate

increases and its oxygen consumption increases.

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