What are testes?
Ovoid structures found in the scrotum
What are seminiferous tubules?
Tubes in the testes and are the specific location of meiosis
What are interstitial cells?
Produce and secrete male sex hormones
What are the parts of a sperm cell?
Head: nucleus, highly compacted chromatin containing 23 chromosomes
Acrosome: enzymes helping sperm penetrate egg
Tail (Flagellum): lashing movements that propel
What is the epididymis?
- Coiled, threadlike tube from top of testis, then upwards forming the vas deferens.
- Immature sperm cells are stored here to mature.
What is the seminal vesicle?
-Saclike structure near base of bladder
-Secretes slightly alkaline fluid regulating pH of tubes for sperm travel
-Secretions contain fructose (sperm energy) and prostaglandins (stimulates uterus contractions)
What is the function of nitric oxide?
To cause penis arteries to dilate
What is the function of ICSH?
Promotes development of testicular interstitial cells
What is the function of testosterone?
-Stimulates testes enlargement
-Stimulates male sex characteristics
What are male secondary sexual characteristics?
Body hair, enlargement of larynx and vocal cords, etc.
What are ovaries?
Solid, ovoid structures in shallow depressions in the lateral wall of the pelvic cavity
What are uterine tubes (fallopian tubes)?
Tubes extending into uterus coming from ovary.
Fimbriae: fringe the infundibulum
Infundibulum: encircles ovary
What is a cervix?
Lower 1/3 of uterus extending to upper vagina
What is an endometrium?
Inner mucosal layer in the uterus, contains tubular glands
What are vestibular glands?
Glands lying on either side of the vaginal opening
What causes menstrual flow?
Increasing concentration of estrogens
What does LH do?
Where does fertilization occur?
What is a zygote?
A large fertilized egg
What is hCG ?
hormone produced early in pregnancy by the placenta; maintains early pregnancy
What is an inner cell mass?
Beginnings of the embryo
What is an embryo?
The offspring until the 8th week
What forms from ectoderm?
Flattened embryonic disks
What forms from chorion?
Chorionic villi (embryonic blood vessels)
What is the amnion?
The sac containing embryonic fluid
Formed in the 2nd week
What is the allantois?
An extraembryonic membranous sac involved in the formation of blood cells
What structures are found in the umbilical cord and what do they do?
Two umbilical arteries and one umbilical vein transports blood between embryo and placenta
What is the ductus arteriosus?
Fetal vessel connecting pulmonary trunk with aortic arch in lungs
What is surfactant?
Secretion that reduces surface tension to allow alveoli to remain open
What is oxytocin?
A stimulator of uterine contractions
What role does progesterone play in pregnancy and childbirth?
More progesterone inhibits birth, less initiates it.
What is the placenta?
Organ that attaches the embryo to the uterine wall and exchanges gasses and wastes
to bud or sprout
to be born
Undifferentiated spermatogenic cells are called
The hormone responsible for the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics is
Meiosis occurs during
both spermatogenesis and oogenesis.
The cells in the testis that produce male sex hormones are called
In spermatogenesis, meiosis results in the formation of
four sperm cells with 23 chromosomes each
n the female reproductive cycle, menstrual flow occurs when the concentrations of
estrogen and progesterone are low.
male sex hormones
Which of the following can be fertilized to produce a zygote?
Testicular cancer is most likely to originate from
epithelial cells of seminiferous tubules.
A Pap smear is used to detect the presence of abnormal cells in the
Women athletes sometimes experience disturbances in their menstrual cycles because of
decreased synthesis of estrogens.
The American Cancer Society recommends that women have their breasts examined with mammography at regular intervals after the age of
The amount of testosterone produced is regulated by a positive feedback system.
FSH stimulates a primordial follicle to start the maturation process.
An increase in the hormone FSH at approximately day 14 causes ovulation.
Endometriosis can result in the formation of fibrous tissue around the ovaries and can prevent ovulation or obstruct the uterine tubes.
Sperm cells are produced by the germinal epithelial cells that line the ______________.
Following ovulation, the follicular cells of the ovary enlarge to form a structure called ______________.
__________ is the process by which egg cells are formed.
Which of the following provides the main source of energy for a newborn during its first few days?
The placenta is composed of tissues from the
Mother and Embryo
Human chorionic gonadotropin is secreted by the
The placental membrane is composed of
a double layer of epithelial cells.
The external reproductive organs can be distinguished by the _____ week of development
The cells of a blastocyst that give rise to the body of the developing offspring constitute the
Blood rich in oxygen and nutrients is transported from the placenta to the fetus in a(an)
The foramen ovale is an opening that allows fetal blood to pass from the
right atrium to the left atrium.
The fetal blood that passes through the ductus venosus is relatively
high in oxygen and nutrients.
Ductus arteriosus allows fetal blood to move from the
pulmonary artery into the aorta.
The substance used to induce the development of ovarian follicles during the in vitro fertilization procedure is most likely
human menopausal gonadotropin.
Drugs ingested by a pregnant woman most likely reach her fetus by passing through the
Teratogens are substances that
cause congenital malformations.
Following birth, the infant's metabolic rate
increases and its oxygen consumption increases.