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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. vascular access device
  2. phlebitis
  3. dehydration
  4. hypotonic
  5. hypokalemia
  1. a abnormally low level of potassium in the circulating blood leading to weakness and heart abnormalities
  2. b inflammation of a vein (usually in the legs)
  3. c A decrease in the amount of water in body tissues
  4. d (of a solution) having a lower osmotic pressure than a comparison solution
  5. e VAD, devices such as a needle, cannula, or catheter that allow direct access to the circulatory system

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. difference between the concentrations of serum cations and anions, determined by measuring the concentrations of sodium cations and chloride and bicarbonate anions.
  2. the presence of abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood
  3. a serious, and potentially fatal, complication of a blood transfusion in which a severe immune response occurs because the patient's blood and the donated blood do not match
  4. A peptide hormone secreted by cardiac atrial cells in response to atrial distension (increased blood flow); causes increased renal sodium excretion and as such lowers blood pressure (antagonizing aldosterone). causes vasodilation and osmoregulation.
  5. The osmotic pressure in the blood vessels due only to plasma proteins (primarily albumin) --> causes water to rush back into capillaries at end.

5 True/False Questions

  1. reninenzyme that is produced by the kidney; important for blood pressure and volume regulation; catalyzes the conversion of circulating angiotensinogen to angiotensin I


  2. hypernatremiaabnormally low level of sodium in the blood


  3. crystalloidselectrolyte solutions that move freely between the intravascular compartment and interstitial spaces


  4. hydrostatic pressurethe pressure exerted by a solution necessary to prevent osmosis into that solution when it is separated from the pure solvent by a semipermeable membrane


  5. colloidswater moves from a more dilute solution (of a solute) to a more concentrated solution (of the solute) through a membrane that is permeable to the solvent until the solution is equalized


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