According to Virgil in the Aeneid, Rome's great contribution to civilization is
What made the Roman Confederation under the Republic so successful?
The Romans gave the conquered people a stake in their success
In the three Punic Wars
Rome fought Carthage and gradually added Carthaginian territory to the growing Roman Empire
Which official was in charge of civil law under the Republic?
What is the title of one of the two annually elected leaders in the Republic?
Which individual was in charge of taxation and finance?
Which individual was in charge of public buildings?
What is meant by the "Struggle of the Orders?"
the conflict between the Patricians and the Plebeians that led to greater equality for the Plebeians
Which class dominated the government of the Republic?
the senatorial class
Why did the Romans accept the monarchical rule of Augustus?
they were tired of civil war and he offered them peace
Why did Augustus claim he was restoring the Republic, when he was actually creating the Empire?
he knew that the people would not accept a king, so he created a myth that he was the embodiment of the restored Republic
Why were the Emperors of the Julio-Claudian (family of Augustus) line mostly unsuccessful?
they did not manage to develop and adequate model for succession to the throne
Why is the era of 96-180 AD considered to be the time when Rome was at her height?
The era of the five "Good Emperors" was a time of great peace and prosperity, in part because the emperors adopted good and able men to succeed them.
Name an important principle of Roman law that we still value.
People are regarded as innocent unless proven guilty
How would you describe the condition of the Roman poor under the Empire?
They were largely unemployed, lived in dreadful, crowded tenements, and needed "bread and circuses" to keep them from venting their anger against the wealthy.
What were the Roman virtues, as revealed in the Aeneid?
Duty, Piety, and Faithfulness (translations of the Latin "pietas"); "gravitas", "auctoritas".
How would you characterize the difference between Greek and Roman sculpture?
Greek was idealistic; Roman realistic
How would you characterize the difference between Greek and Roman architecture?
Greek tends to be graceful, generating a sense of harmony and civilizing the senses. Roman tends to be more massive, well-engineered and designed to evoke power and authority.
Why was Jesus put to death by the Romans?
he said that he was a king
What was the distinctive contribution of Paul to the Christian mission?
he believed that God called non-Jews as well as Jews into a relationship
How did the Roman Empire facilitate the spread of Christianity?
The Pax Romana, Roman roads, Roman trade networks
Why did the Romans persecute the Christians?
The Christians didn't believe in the gods, which would bring danger to the Empire
Why did Rome begin its long decline around the year 180?
Commodus, son of Marcus Aurelius, came to the throne and began a long period of poor leadership
What endangered the Empire in the course of the 3rd century?
civil wars; famine; plague; barbarian invasions; inflation; rising taxes to fight wars on frontiers; declining population
What measures did Diocletian (284-305) take to "save" the Empire?
Diocletian divided the Empire into two halves with four leaders; he increased the army; he strengthened the civil service; he required people to stay in the profession of their fathers; he persecuted the Christians who were blamed for the Empire's troubles.
When was the Battle of Milvian Bridge and why is it so important?
The Battle of Milvian Bridge was in 312 AD and it is important because Constantine believed he had a vision of Christ who would become his Protector
What is the meaning of "In hoc signo vinces"?
"By this sign, you will conquer". Christ spoke these words with a vision of the cross in the sky to Constantine before the decisive battle at Milvian Bridge.
When was the Edict of Milan and why is it important?
The Edict of Milan, 313 AD, issued by Constantine, is the first document to formally legalize Christianity
Briefly describe the progress of Christianity in the course of the 4th century.
From its legalization in 313 until its official adoption as the only acceptable religion of the Roman Empire by Theodosius in 380 AD, the faith went from being a persecuted minority to a privileged and powerful majority.
Briefly describe the fortunes of the Empire in the West during the course of the 5th century
The "barbarians", mostly Germans (Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, Angles, Saxons), as well as the Huns, penetrate the borders of the Empire. Rome is sacked by the Visigoths in 410 and the Vandals in 455. Finally, the barbarians carve up the Western Empire into their own kingdoms. The last Emperor of the West, Romulus Augustulus, is deposed by Odoacer in 476.
Where does the power and civilization of Rome shift to in the course of the 4th century?
Constantinople, founded by Constantine in 330 as a purely Christian city, becomes the center of Roman power and survives as such until its fall to the Muslim Turks in 1453.
Did Rome really "fall" in the West in 476?
Yes and no! There was no longer an emperor ruling from Rome, but with the exception of Britain, people continued to speak Latin, practice Roman culture, and worship as they did before that date. In fact, the Western Church, based in Rome, was a powerful force for sustaining Roman culture for many centuries.
What Roman cultural forms did the Church adapt?
Church buildings borrowed the architecture of the ancient Roman basilica; church ritual adapted the court ritual of the later Empire.
How did Christian monasticism begin?
Monasticism began in the deserts of Egypt and Syria at the beginning of the 4th century as a reaction to the growing power and privilege of the Christian Church. Christians of the old "martyr" party felt the need to express a more rigorous form of Christianity.
What is monasticism?
a way of life characterized by prayer and self denial lived in seclusion
How did monasticism play a role in preserving Roman civilization?
monks were dedicated to lives of study, which included the study and copying of ancient Roman texts.
In the Aeneid, why is the goddess Juno angry?
Juno is angry because of the Judgement of Paris (he chose Venus as the most beautiful) and because she favors Carthage, knowing that Rome will destroy Carthage in the future.
When Aeneas cries to heaven during the storm
he expresses his longing to have died a hero's death beneath the walls of Troy
What does Virgil compare the calming of the storm to?
The Peace created by a man exhibiting pietas and gravitas in the face of a raging mob.
"Sick with mounting cares, he assumes a look of hope and keeps his anguish buried in his heart." Which Roman virtue does this represent?
Aeneas, most of all, devoted to his shipmates, deep within himself he moans for the losses." Which Roman virtue does this represent?
Why was Venus "consoled for Troy's demise, that heartrending ruin?"
Because Rome will arise as a result of Troy's demise.
"Ascanius now gains the name of Iulus." Why is this one of the most important lines in the Aeneid?
Ascanius, son of Aeneas, is the ancestor of the Julian family and, therefore, of Augustus.
"The royal priestess, great with the brood of Mars." Who is this?
Ilia or Rhea Silvia, the mother of Romulus and Remus
"On them I set no limits, space or time: I have granted them power, empire without end." To whom does Jupiter refer?
"An age will come when Assacarus' royal house will quell Achilles' homeland, brilliant Mycenae too, and enslave their people, rule defeated Argos." What is this a reference to?
Rome will conquer Greece
"Then will the violent centuries battles set aside, grow gentle, kind." What is this a reference to?
The Pax Augusta, the Peace of Augustus
How does Venus appear to Aeneas?
She appears as a huntress
While he was speaking to the huntress, how does Aeneas realize that she was perhaps a goddess in disguise, that this was a "theophany".
The girl's face and voice didn't seem human
"Her neck shone with rosy glow, her mane of hair gave off an ambrosial fragrance, her skirt flowed loose."
This is the moment of "Epiphany", when the goddess Venus reveals her true nature.
What scenes in art does Aeneas witness at Carthage?
Scenes from the Trojan War
"We once had a king, Aeneas, none more just, none more devoted to duty." Which Roman virtue is represented here?
Why does Cupid assume the form of Ascanius?
to trick Dido into falling in love with Aeneas
"Tragic Dido, doomed to a plague about to strike." What was this plague?
What did Tacitus and Pliny have in common?
They were both writers, born in the provinces in the time of the Julio-Claudian emperors (who were considered corrupt), survived the proscriptions of Domitian, and made their way up the ladder in Roman politics to become prosperous and inflential senators in the reign of the "Good Emperor", Trajan.
According to Tacitus, how did Nero humiliate the upper classes?
He had senators and upper class women fight in the arena.
In what way did Nero insult old Roman virtue?
By wanting to sing in public, he did not exhibit proper gravitas
Why was Torquatus a threat to Nero?
He was a wealthy descendant of Augustus with great power and many friends.
Why was Nero frightened in the Temple of Vesta?
The Temple of Vesta represented the old values of Rome, which Nero insulted.
What evidence does Tacitus provide to suggest that the rumor that Nero set the great fire of Rome may be true?
Men were seen running through the city setting fire to things.
How did the fire actually improve life in the city of Rome?
Nero rebuilt the city with a better infrastructure, fire-proof buildings, better fire-fighting system, improved distribution of water, and wider, more beautful, streets.
Why were the Christians blamed for the fire?
They were "notoriously depraved, a deadly superstition, had anti-social tendencies."
What sacrilege was Nero guilty of when he raised funds to rebuild the city?
He robbed the temples and melted down the bronze statues of the gods.
In his letter to Tacitus, how does Pliny describe "the most fortunate man?"
The most fortunate man has done something worth recording and has written something worth reading.
Who was Pliny the Elder?
Pliny the Elder was Pliny the Younger's uncle, the writer of the most important Natural History of ancient times, and when he died in 79AD in the eruption of Vesuvius, was admiral of the Roman fleet.
How did the Elder Pliny's actions represent old Roman virtues?
He intended to help as many people escape the eruption as possible and, in the face of adversity, showed composure. Pietas and Gravitas.
From incidental details in Pliny's second letter to Tacitus, what do we learn about the education of the Roman elite at that time?
The Younger Pliny "spent his day with his books," which included reading Virgil and Livy.
What evidence do we have from his letters that Pliny and his mother were privileged and wealthy?
While everyone else was fleeing the eruption on foot, they called for their carriages.
Which Roman virtue does Pliny and his mother represent when they delay their own escape?
They could not consider their own safety without first hearing of his uncle's. This is pietas.
What are some of Pliny's theological reflections on this event?
"Many sought the aid of the gods, but still more imagined that there were no gods left, and the universe was plunged into eternal darkness."
How would you describe Pliny's relationship with the Emperor Trajan?
Clearly they know one another and he can write honestly and openly to the Emperor, but Pliny defers to the Emperor for guidance.
What is the main problem Pliny presents to Trajan?
How should Christians be punished? What are the grounds for starting an investigation? Should a pardon be granted to those who retract their beliefs? Should people be punished for the mere name of "Christian" or for the crimes associated with being a Christian?
What is the crime with which Christians are charged?
Being a Christian.
How does Pliny view the Christians?
Stubborn, obstinate, fanatical, a degenerate and wretched cult, but harmless and law-abiding at the same time.
What are the tests Pliny gave to prove that people are no longer Christians?
They had to invoke the gods, revile the name of Christ, and offer wine and incense to the Emperor's statue.
What interesting facts about the early Christians do we learn from Pliny's letter?
They met before dawn on a fixed day; they sang hymns to Christ; they promised not to steal, rob, or commit adultery; they had a feast together.
What do we learn about the numerical strength of the Christians in Bithynia at the time of Pliny?
There are large numbers of them in town and country; pagan temples have been deserted; the meat of sacrificed animals has been difficult to sell.
How does Trajn resolve Pliny's dilemma?
The Christians must not be hunted out; those who are Christians must still be put to death; they should be pardoned if they cease being Christians and offer prayer to the gods; there should be no anonymous accusations.