Low flow rate, high salt,low pH
What factors favor protein cast formation?
What is the fluid part of blood that is forced through the glomerulus called?
What is the 2nd step of urine production when water and solutes are returned to the blood in the kidneys called?
What is it when H+, K+ creatinine and drugs are removed from the blood and into filtrate?
Over-hydration and diabetes can cause this color in urine.
Is clear urine mean your healthy?
What is the color of normal urine considered?
Hepatitis and dehydration or marked by this color of urine.
What is the presence of blood in the urine called?
What is the presence of hemoglobin in the urine called?
The more yellow urine is is also referred to what kind of urine?
Clear or cloudy urine can indicate a urinary tract infection?
Urine Specific Gravity
What is a measure of the concentration or amount of substances dissolved in urine?
Normal SG range is?
What SG is indicative to concentrated urine?
Low SG in urine is what?
1.008-1.012 is considered to be what kind of urine or "fixed"?
When a pt has the inability to dilute or concentrate urine there specific gravity would be considered what?
What is a highly acidic substance formed when the liver breaks down free fatty acids in the absence of insulin?
What is an orange-yellow pigment in the bile that forms as a product of hemoglobin?
What is the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger?
What is abnormal presence of a hemoglobin-like chemical of muscle tissue in urine that is the result of muscle deterioration?
Crenated RBC will be concentrated or dilute urine?
RBC's swell and lyse will have concentrated or dilute urine?
Squamous Epithelial cells
The largest if the epithelial cells found in urine is what?
Should you fine protein in urine?
If you found protein in urine it would be indicative of what problem?
What would the numbers in urine of bacteria have to be significant?
WhatTriple phosphate crystals normal in cats and dogs are also known as?
What common crystals of dogs and cats are normal in alkaline urine, granules or sand-like appearance, colorless, occasionally clumped also confused with bacteria is called what?
Ammonium biurate crystals
Crystals that look like Thorny apples and indicative to liver disease?
These crystals are usually seen as fine brownish needles. These can be associated with severe liver disease in humans, but they are very rarely seen in domestic animals are called what?
Ethylene glycol toxicosis produces what kind of crystals?
These cystine crystals are shaped like stop signs. (Cystine crystals are quite rare, most often seen as a congenital defect in Dalmations)?
inborn error of metabolism; colorless hexagonal plates; confirmation test cyanide-nitroprusside test Called what?
what is the most frequent form of oxalate crystals?
This oxalate crystal is always almost indicative of ethylene glycol toxicity?
What urine crystal is possibly sex linked to males and a genetic defect of renal function?
This crystal may precipitate as orange to reddish-brown granules or needle-like crystals. They can be found in low numbers routinely in canine urine, especially in highly concentrated samples?
What crystals are common in horses, rabbits, g. pigs and goats?
What cylindrical aggregations of particulate matter that form in the distal nephron, dislodge, and eventually pass into the urine?
What is the backbone of most urine cast?
What cells in cast signify renal hematuria and glomerular disease?
What cells in cast signify infection or non-infectious renal inflammation?
What cells in cast signify tubular damage and necrosis?
What renal cast that contains fat droplets because of chronic renal disease?
what type of casts are the "plug" of cells, and they indicate inflammation of the kidney?
what type of cast is the final step in disintegration and indicates chronic inflammation?
What cast grayish or colorless, highly refractile, appear very solid, broken off square ends?
THis cast would be seen if a cat was having renal dz?
abnormally frequent urination