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Check it biznatches

Low flow rate, high salt,low pH

What factors favor protein cast formation?

Glomerular filtration

What is the fluid part of blood that is forced through the glomerulus called?

Tubular reabsorbtion

What is the 2nd step of urine production when water and solutes are returned to the blood in the kidneys called?

Tubular secretion

What is it when H+, K+ creatinine and drugs are removed from the blood and into filtrate?

Clear

Over-hydration and diabetes can cause this color in urine.

no

Is clear urine mean your healthy?

yellow(straw)

What is the color of normal urine considered?

Dark yellow

Hepatitis and dehydration or marked by this color of urine.

Hematuria

What is the presence of blood in the urine called?

Hemoglobinuria

What is the presence of hemoglobin in the urine called?

Concentrated

The more yellow urine is is also referred to what kind of urine?

Cloudy urine

Clear or cloudy urine can indicate a urinary tract infection?

Urine Specific Gravity

What is a measure of the concentration or amount of substances dissolved in urine?

1.002-1.080

Normal SG range is?

>1.015

What SG is indicative to concentrated urine?

<1.007

Low SG in urine is what?

Isosthenuric

1.008-1.012 is considered to be what kind of urine or "fixed"?

Isosthenuric

When a pt has the inability to dilute or concentrate urine there specific gravity would be considered what?

ketone

What is a highly acidic substance formed when the liver breaks down free fatty acids in the absence of insulin?

Bilirubin

What is an orange-yellow pigment in the bile that forms as a product of hemoglobin?

Glucose

What is the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger?

Acidic

<7.0 pH

Alkaline

>7.0 pH

myoglobinuria

What is abnormal presence of a hemoglobin-like chemical of muscle tissue in urine that is the result of muscle deterioration?

Concentrated

Crenated RBC will be concentrated or dilute urine?

Dilute urine

RBC's swell and lyse will have concentrated or dilute urine?

Squamous Epithelial cells

The largest if the epithelial cells found in urine is what?

no

Should you fine protein in urine?

Kidney damage

If you found protein in urine it would be indicative of what problem?

High

What would the numbers in urine of bacteria have to be significant?

Struvite

WhatTriple phosphate crystals normal in cats and dogs are also known as?

Amorphous phosphates

What common crystals of dogs and cats are normal in alkaline urine, granules or sand-like appearance, colorless, occasionally clumped also confused with bacteria is called what?

Ammonium biurate crystals

Crystals that look like Thorny apples and indicative to liver disease?

Tryosine crystals

These crystals are usually seen as fine brownish needles. These can be associated with severe liver disease in humans, but they are very rarely seen in domestic animals are called what?

Oxalate crystals

Ethylene glycol toxicosis produces what kind of crystals?

Cystine Crystals

These cystine crystals are shaped like stop signs. (Cystine crystals are quite rare, most often seen as a congenital defect in Dalmations)?

Cystine Crystals

inborn error of metabolism; colorless hexagonal plates; confirmation test cyanide-nitroprusside test Called what?

Dihydrate

what is the most frequent form of oxalate crystals?

Monohydrate

This oxalate crystal is always almost indicative of ethylene glycol toxicity?

Cystine

What urine crystal is possibly sex linked to males and a genetic defect of renal function?

bilirubin crystals

This crystal may precipitate as orange to reddish-brown granules or needle-like crystals. They can be found in low numbers routinely in canine urine, especially in highly concentrated samples?

Calcium Carbonate

What crystals are common in horses, rabbits, g. pigs and goats?

Urinary casts

What cylindrical aggregations of particulate matter that form in the distal nephron, dislodge, and eventually pass into the urine?

Hyaline

What is the backbone of most urine cast?

RBC cast

What cells in cast signify renal hematuria and glomerular disease?

WBC cast

What cells in cast signify infection or non-infectious renal inflammation?

Epithelial cast

What cells in cast signify tubular damage and necrosis?

Fatty cast

What renal cast that contains fat droplets because of chronic renal disease?

Granular cast

what type of casts are the "plug" of cells, and they indicate inflammation of the kidney?

Waxy cast

what type of cast is the final step in disintegration and indicates chronic inflammation?

Waxy cast

What cast grayish or colorless, highly refractile, appear very solid, broken off square ends?

waxy cast

THis cast would be seen if a cat was having renal dz?

Pollakiuria

abnormally frequent urination

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