|Hybridization|| 1) hybrid vigor|
3) managed outcrossing
40 cultivation of wheat
|Plant breeding||is accelerated evolution guided by humans rather than nature.|
|self- pollinating||Tends to be highly homozygous because all its genes came from the same parent who was both its mother and father and has under gone a significant amount of inbreeding.|
|cross-pollenating||is likely to be highly heterozygous because its mother and father were different plants. They tend to require a high level of heterozygosity in order to be productive (corn).|
|hybrid vigor||The more distantly things are related the bigger, faster, more mature they will grow with good health|
|inbreeding||the mating between individuals with common closely related ancestors. It brings our the recessive qualities.|
|outcrossing||cross-pollination between individuals of the same species.|
|Cultivation of wheat||Huge diversity of wheat, many strains collected from many framers. Each strain is different with differing qualities and resistance to disease. If disease comes though and wipes out certain strains there are others which will survive.|
|2nd step hybridization of different strains|| Keep working to find better straits.|
X backwards to genetic selective breeding
Selection for 1 characteristic is unhealthy.
More Inbreeding leads to more recessive genes.
Recessive genes cause problems.
|Landraces||Framers collect their best seeds from their crop for the next generation, and continued this practice developing their own strain of hybrid seeds with specialized qualities.|
|GMO Genetically Modified Organism|| Genetically modified food that is hybridized on the gene/ chromosome level. Or gene from an outside species/ animal to plant.|
1) cut out genes
2) move around
3) manipulate/transfer the chromosomes.
|Master genes or Hawkwards|| Genetic alterations produced strange mutations|
like eyes on legs, arms coming out of head.
|polyploid||More than 2 sets of chromosomes (3 or more)|
|extra genes material|| Uneven number traits in hybrids result in sterility because they are unable to go through the meiosis.|
Example: donkey crossed with horse = mule
|beneficial mutations||1 % or less are beneficial. 99% are not good. This is the problem with Darwin's theories. He never discussed mutations.|
|mutations||changes in DNA sequences|
|hardy-Weinberg law|| 1. Specifies criteria for genetic equilibrium in large population. Conditions altering equilibrium:|
1) nonrandom breeding
2) gene mutation
3) selection is the most significant cause of exception
|Genetic engineering|| Artificial addition of DNA to bacteria to create:|
Strawberries resistant to bacteria
Tomatoes that will not soften and bruise easily