What were the Ottoman leaders called?
Where was the base of the Ottoman empire?
All of these Muslim dynasties were ______ empires
Who was the founder of the Ottoman empire?
What were Muslim warriors called?
Describe the Ghazi warrior
two forces: light cavalry with heavy armor (financed by land grants) & volunteer infantry (slaves)
What was Mehmed II known for?
Ottoman sultan that sacked Constantinople
What two lands and seas did Mehmed II conquer?
Asia and Europe, Black and Mediterranean seas
What other accomplishments did Mehmed II have?
established absolute monarchy and it became the new capital; also, he conquered Serbia, Greece, and Albania but not Italy
What was Selim the Grim known for?
Ottoman sultan; occupied Syria and Egypt
What did Suleyman the Great of the Ottoman do?
gained Asia and Europe, conquered Baghdad, and created the empire's naval power
Describe the Janissaries (possible essay)
They were Ottoman Christian boys that were traded by families and made Islam, these boys were a part of an infantry division that controlled the army. They controlled artillery and firearms and they were deeply involved in court politics. They also tried to use military service to influence politics
What were the reasons for all of the Muslim dynasties' decline?
did not gain land through wars, had diverse ethnic groups, and did not advance technologically or economically
What religion did the majority of Ottomans practice?
What religion did the majority of Safavids practice?
Where was the Safavid dynasty?
Who was the founder of the Safavid empire?
What did the Safavid religion believe?
the adherents believed that there were 12 religious leaders after Muhammad
What happened as a result of the Ottoman and Safavid opposing religious beliefs?
they had a war : Sunni Ottomans vs. Shiite Safavids; the Ottomans won with the use of gunpowder but they did not take over
Who was the Safavid "conqueror" (following successor after Ismail)?
Shah Abbas the Great
What were leaders of the Safavid dynasty called?
What was Shah Abbas the Great known for?
revitalized Safavid empire; encouraged trade, reformed military and administrative institutions, used gunpowder, allowed slaves to fight in the army, asked Europe for help against the Ottomans, took over NW Iran Caucasus & Mesopotamia
Where was the Mughal empire located?
India ( Central Asia )
Who was the founder of the Mughal empire?
Babur the Tiger
How long did the Mughal empire last?
200 years after Babur's death
All of the Mughal emperors were _______
The Mughals were ___________
In the 1600s the Mughal empire lost land to who?
Europe (unlike the Ottoman and Safavid empires)
What was the Mughal empire's first capital and what was it known for?
Agra; Taj Mahal
What the Mughal empire's second capital and what was it known for?
New Dehli; Peacock thrown
What were some traits of the Mughals?
trade, Buddhism, Hinduism, women aristocrats were awarded titles, architecture, painting, poetry, and they believed in Hindu gods
Who was Babur's successor?
his grandson, Akbar the great
What was Akbar the great known for?
completed conquest of India, heavy artillery, government with tax code, legal system, and **religious tolerance**
Who was Akbar's successor?
his great grandson, Aurangzeb
What was Aurangzeb known for?
was a militant Muslim, forced people to be Islamic - weakened economy and led to the empire's fall (1700s)
Where did the three middle east dynasties spread?
eastern Europe, Egypt and north Africa
Where did the three middles east dynasties people come from?
all the dynasties emerged from Turkish-speaking people of central Asia who conquered the agricultural lands of Anatolia, Persia, and India
All the middle east dynasties began as small ______ principalities in frontier areas.
Describe Israel history (possible essay)
It all began with the Jewish search for the Holy Land. They went to Egypt and were trapped as slaves. Then Moses freed them and led them to the Roman empire. When the Romans took power, they forced the Jews to migrate all over Eurasia for 1000+ years (Diaspora). In 1917, Balfour made a declaration that Israel should be formated but not to force the Palestinians to leave. During World War I, 6 million Jews were killed. In 1948, Jewish people migrate to Britain's controlled Palestine state (1920). Continuing until present times, 6 Arab countries have been fighting with Israel who supported the Palestinians. 1967- Six day war; Israel won and gained West bank-Jordan & Sinai Peninsula - Egypt. Israel has been successful everytime with help from US and other allies and weapons.
Who were Zionists?
Jewish nationalists from WWI that supported the formation of Israel
What is the biggest threat of the 6 Arab countries against the Israelis?
PLO - terrorism; suicide bombers
What is similar to the PLO that threatens the US today?
Al Qaeda (the base)
Explain the Iranian Revolution (possible essay)
The revolution led to the Shah's fall. The Shah spent too much money from oil profits on military and too much time on westernization. As a result, he turned the people against him and led to many protests. The Shah left Iran in 1979 (during Jimmy Carter's presidency). This also affected gas prices in the US and elsewhere. Ayatollah Khomeini rose up against the Shah from 1979-1989. Protests led to the embassy in Tehran being taken over and no more relations with America. Hostages from the US were taken and werent released until Jimmy Carter was taken out of office (big statement of hatred for him). Led to the Khomeini revolution...
Describe the Khomeini Revolution (Iran vs Iraq war)
This revolution was under Ayatollah Khomeini who became the dictator. He suppressed women and spoke out to support the Palestine vs Israel war. Led to the Iran vs Iraq war 1980-1988. America and Russia were neutral and sold weapons to both countries for economic gain. 1989- Khomeini dies and Ayatollah Ali takes over. Sunni and Shiite split takes place in Iran and now they have nuclear weapons. The Iran and Iraq war was a fundamentalist movement and the US placed Ayatollah Ali in office through this revolution.
Describe the Iran Contraffair
Took place in the 1980s in which the Israelis sold arms to Iran. The US took profits and purchased more weapons to defeat communism (Reagan's presidency)
Who was the first leader of Iraq?
Describe Saddam Hussein & Gulf War I (possible essay)
Came to power in 1979 with the overthrow of Abdul al-Karim Qassim -republic of Iraq. Hussein was the general of the Baath party from 1963-1968 where he killed many Kurds and became the leader of Iraq through violence: mass graves. Under his rule, he decided to invade Kuwait in order to gain more oil profits.1990 -1st gulf war. US had already declared that the world boundaries had been set and there would be no invaded to gain more territory. So the US allied with Saudi Arabia, Egypt and UK and commenced "Desert Storm"(it was a ground war) under George H. W. Bush (senior). $40 billion payed of the $60 billion by Saudi Arabia. War lasted 6 months and Iraq quickly surrendered, only scare: scud missiles launched on Israel. Hussein lit the oil fields and escaped. US set up no-fly zones, and other US sanctions on Iraq.
Describe the 2nd Gulf War (possible essay)
Saddam Hussein defied all of the US sanction of Iraq, the no-fly zones, and lit the oil fields which led to the 2nd Gulf war 2003. 2nd gulf war led by George W. Bush (junior ) - operation Iraqi freedom - invaded Iraq w multinational force (UK - Tony Blair). Last combat- August 19 2010. August 31- Barack Obama declared an end to the combats. 50,000 US troops remain in Iraq in "advise and assist" capacity.
In 2002 Iraq was searched by UNMOVIC for ______
possesion of weapons of mass destruction
What happened after the invasion and conquer of Iraq?
A new government was established that captured and executed Saddam Hussein. Strife emerged between the Sunni and Shiite Iraqis and Al-qaeda emerged.
What was the Iraqi Parliament passed "Strategic formation agreement" bill stating?
ensuring the cooperation in constitutional rights, threat deterrence, education, energy development, and other areas.
General Ray Odierno : top military commander in Iraq believes the assist and adjust troops will be out by ____
Who is the Iraqi prime minister and what does he support?
Nouri al-Maliki; accelerated pull-out of US forces
What is the new name of "Operation Iraqi Freedom"?
Operation new dawn
What led to the formation of Al-Qaeda? (Possible essay)
When the US soldiers were fighting in the gulf wars, the Bin Laden son, Osama, witnessed US soldiers listening to heavy music, drinking, and being promiscuous. Being on holy land, Osama viewed this as a disrespect and insult to them. After fighting the Gulf war for Saudi Arabia, he had made many allies and groups. Because of his family's wealth from oil profits and control of oil exportation, he had the money to supply, run and form "the base" (Al-qaeda). September 11, 2001 he led the terrorist attack on New York and the US. This led to the War in Afghanistan and there has been many other attacks. Currently, we are fighting to capture Osama Bin Laden and put an end to terrorism and the Al-qaeda.