Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War. No casualties
Secession after the beginning of the war
4 slave states stayed in the union.-Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware.
Strengths of South
1)Strong support of white population
3)Defending homes and way of life
6)All Depend on a short war
Weaknesses of South
4)Only Major commodity: cotton
Strengths of North
Weaknesses of North
1)Bringing the south back
2)invade and hold south
3)Public opinion divided
Goals and Strategies of Union
Main Goal: Bring south back into the union- NOT to end slavery.
Strategy: Anaconda Plan-- 1)Blockade southern ports 2)control mississippi river and divide the south 3) Capture richmond
Goals and Strategies of Confederacy
Main Goal:Win Recognition as a independant nation.
Defensive Strategy: Hold Territory until north tired of fighting, Hoped for help from britain and france
Battle of Bull Run
July 21, 1861. Va. (outside of D.C.) People watched battle. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson: Confederate general, held his ground and stood in battle like a "stone wall." Union retreated. Confederate victory. Showed that both sides needed training and war would be long and bloody--Manasses Junction
War in the West
Ulysses S. Grant captures Ft. Henry and Ft. Donelson in Tennessee, Drove Confederates from Kentucky, David Farragut captures New Orleans which makes confederates lose control of Mississippi RIver
War at Sea
Union Blockade, preventing cotton shipments and importing supplies, reduced southern trade by two-thirds. Ironclads-- Merrimac(Union) and Monitor(confederates)
a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. The operation, commanded by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, was an amphibious turning movement intended to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond by circumventing the Confederate States Army in northern Virginia. McClellan was initially successful against the equally cautious General Joseph E. Johnston, but the emergence of General Robert E. Lee changed the character of the campaign and turned it into a humiliating Union defeat.
Battle of Antietam
battle in which the North suceedeed in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties
In 1861 the Confederacy sent emissaries James Mason to Britain and John Slidell to France to lobby for recognition. A Union ship captured both men and took them to Boston as prisonners. The British were angry and Lincoln ordered their release
September 22, 1862 - Lincoln freed all slaves in the states that had seceded, after the Northern victory at the Battle of Antietam. Lincoln had no power to enforce the law. Allows the U.S. to get foreign aid; most important outcome of Battle of Antietam
a document requiring that a prisoner be brought before a court judge so that it can be decided whether his or her imprisonment is legal
a group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War
New York City Draft Riots
July 1863 just after the Battle at Gettysburg. Mobs of Irish working-class men and women roamed the streets for four days until federal troops suppressed them. They loathed the idea of being drafted to fight a war on behalf of slaves who, once freed, would compete with them for jobs.
Fort Pillow Massacre
massacre of surrendered African-American troops was conducted or condoned by Confederate Major General Nathan Bedford Forrest. Military historian David J. Eicher concluded, "Fort Pillow marked one of the bleakest, saddest events of American military history." Confederate troops led by future KKK leader Nathan Bedford Forrest.
First black regiment led by white commander robert gould shaw
The most infamous prison in the south. There was no shelter. There was a huge population, and there were food shortages, overcrowding, and disease that killed about 100 men a day during the summer months.
Battle of Fredericksburg
The Union, led by Major General Ambrose Burnside, was defeated and lost 12,000 men. General Robert E. Lee, Commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, was the Confederate general who led in the defeat.
Battle of Chancellorsville
The Union was defeated again with the Confederacy being led by Robert E. Lee. General Thomas Stonewall Jackson was accidentally wounded here by one of his own men-Then died of pneumonia.
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.
Little round top
the site of an unsuccessful assault by Confederate troops against the Union left flank on July 2, 1863, the second day of the Battle of Gettysburg.
3rd day of Gettysburg, Lee asked Pickett to lead troops on a mile and a half run in a open field where they were then slaughtered by the union army
Battle of Vicksburg
1863, Union gains control of Mississippi, confederacy split in two, Grant takes lead of Union armies, total war begins
speech by Abraham Lincoln on November 19, 1963 at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg, key ideas were liberty, equality, and democratic ideas; purpose of war was to portect those ideas. Edward Everett spoke for 2 hours.
Battle of kennesaw mountain
was fought on June 27, 1864, during the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War. Sherman took heavy casulties and Johnston retreated after winning.
burning of atlanta
General Sherman and his troops set the city of Atlanta on fire, in order to destroy the confederate's supply lines and then Marched to the Sea, Savannah, and burnt everything along the way
Election of 1864
Lincoln vs. McClellan, Lincoln wants to unite North and South, McClellan wants war to end if he's elected, citizens of North are sick of war so many vote for McClellan, Lincoln wins
Appomatox Court House
On April 9, 1865, Confederate general Robert E. Lee surrended to Union general Ulysses S. Grant in this town in south-central Virginia. The Confederate surrender was the end of the Civil War in Virginia and marked the beginning of the end of the war across the South.
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
April 14 1865 shot by john wilkes booth at a play called Our american Cousin. shot a fords theater. died following day at william petersons home
where Lincoln was assassinated
Our american cousin
What play was Lincoln watching when he was assassinated
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
This was Lincoln's reconstruction plan for after the Civil War. Written in 1863, it proclaimed that a state could be reintegrated into the Union when 10% of its voters in the 1860 election pledged their allegiance to the U.S. and pledged to abide by emancipation, and then formally erect their state governments. This plan was very lenient to the South, would have meant an easy reconstruction.
These were a small group of people in 1865 who supported black suffrage. They were led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. They supported the abolition of slavery and a demanding reconstruction policy during the war and after.
Benjamin Wade and Henry Davis proposed this bill, said 50% of white males must swear "iron clad" loyalty to the union.
Organization run by the army to care for and protect southern Blacks after the Civil War
laws passed in the south just after the civil war aimed at controlling freedmen and enabling plantation owners to exploit african american workers
people who rent a plot of land from another person, and farm it in exchange for a share of the crop
civil rights act of 1866
Act that prohibits any racial discrimination in the sale or rental of housing
intended to ensure the rights of the freed slaves; it granted citizenship to the freedmen, guaranteed them due process of law, and gave them the right to vote
reconstruction act of 1867
a.) put the South under military rule b.)Ordered states to hold new elections for deleagates to creat new state constitutions c.) Required all states to allow all qualified male voters to vote in elections d.) Barred those who supported the Confederacy from voting. e.) Required southern states to guarante
tenure of office act
1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet
certain the tenure act was unconstitutional he fired the secretary of state, stanton. house brought eleven charges of impeachment, nine were based on violation of the tenure act
voting rights; all citizens have the right to vote no matter what, color, race, previous condition of servitude. women could still not vote
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners.
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states;
Klu Klux Klan
A secret organization that used terrorist tactics in an attempt to restore white supremecy in the South after the Civil War.
election of 1876
Ended reconstruction because neither canidate had an electorial majority. Hayes was elected, and then ended reconstruction as he secretly promised
compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river