Ch. 23 Review

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Name the structures of the lymphatic system.

Lymphatic vessels, Lymph fluid, Lymph nodes, and Lymph organs

Where are lymphatic vessels found?

throughout the body

What is the job of the lymphatic vessels?

It drains lymph fluid into the venous system

Name the components in lymph fluid.

Interstitial fluid(less proteins), lymphocytes, and various macrophages

What are the lymph nodes/organs surrounded by?

Dense fibrous connective tissue

Name the lymph nodes/organs.

The spleen, thymus, bone marrow, and tonsils

Name the first function of the lymphatic system.

It produces an immune response by invading organisms(bacteria and viruses), abnormal cells, and foreign particles

Name the second function of the lymphatic system.

Its responsible for the production, distribution, and maintenance of lymphocytes which is called lymphopoiesis which occurs in the bone marrow and thymus

What are T-Cells?

theyre cells that are thymus dependent, and make up 80% of circulating lymphocytes (agranular)

Name the types of t-cells.

Cytotoxics, Helper T's, Supressor T's, and Memory T cells

What is the function of cytotoxic T cells?

They attack cells invaded by viruses

What are the functions of helper T cells and supressor T cells?

They assist in immune response and activate B cells

When are memory T cells produced?

Following exposure to a particular antigen and are on reserve if the same antigen reappears

What are B cells?

Theyre bone marrow dependent cells that make up 10 to 15% of circulating lymphocytes. They differentiate into plasma cells and produce antibodies that are agranular

Name the components of B cells.

Memory B cells, Helper T cells, and Supressor T cells

What are memory B cells?

Cells similar to memory T cells

What is the job of helper T cells that are bone marrow dependent?

They promote differentiation of plasma cells and accelarate production of antibodies

What is the job of supressor T cells that are bone marrow dependent?

They inhibit formation of plasma cells and reduce production of antibodies

What are NK cells?

Theyre cells that make up 5 to 10% of circulating lymphocytes and are granular lymphocytes that attack foreign cells or normal cells invaded with virus and cancer cells

What do the primary lymph organs produce?

Stem cells

Name the primary lymph organs responsible for the storage of lymphocytes.

Bone marrow and the thymus

What are the secondary organs and what are they responsible for?

Theyre triggered by immune response and theyre immature or activated lymphocytes that divide to produce additional lymphocytes

Name the secondary organs responsible for the storage of lymphocytes.

the spleen, lymph nodes, and lymph nodules

What lymph nodes are responsible for the storage of lymphocytes?

The small organs

What are lymph nodules?

Theyre lymphocytes that are densely packed within loose connective tissue and are found in the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems

Name the general functions of the lymphatic system.

It produces an immune respons, stores lymphocytes, maintains blood volume, maintinas interstitial fluid, and is responsible for lipid absorption and transport

When the lymphatic system maintins the blood volume what else does it do in those regards?

It returns an equal amount of interstitial fluid to the blood stream

what components of the lymphatic system are responsible for the absorption and transport of lipids?

Lacteals

What are the components of the lymphatic vasculature?

Lymphatic capillaries and Lymphatic vessels

Name the component of the lymphatic capillaries.

Blind end vessels

Where do the blind end vessels go?

They lead away from the tissue

Name the characteristic of lymphatic vessels.

Theyre low in pressure

Name the component of the lymphatic vessels.

One-way valves

Where do one-way valves go?

They move the fluid towards the ducts

Name the components of the lymphatic system that are involved in the circulation path.

Interstitial fluid, lymphatic capillaries, and lymphatic vessels, lymphatic ducts, and veins

Where do the right lymphatic ducts drain?

From the right side of the head, thorax, and upper extremities into the right subclavian and the left drains into the left subclavian

What are nodules?

Theyre lymphocytes in loose connective tissue that line the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems

Name the different types of nodules.

Germinal centers, Tonsils, Peyers patches, and appendix

What do the germinal centers contain?

active dividing lymphocytes

What are the tonsils?

Theyre large nodules in the walls of the pharynx that remove pathogens from food and air

How many tonsils are there?

5

Name types of tonsils.

1 pharyngeal, 2 palatine, and 2 lingual

Where are peyer's patches found?

In the small intestine and are the mucosa layer

Whats another name for the pharyngeal tonsil?

Adenoids

Where is the pharyngeal tonsil found?

In the nasopharynx

Where are the palatine tonsils found?

in the posterior oral cavity (pharynx and soft palate)

Where are the lingual tonsils found?

Theyre not visible but are found at the base of the tongue

How are the nodes described and what is their job?

Theyre the more defined structures and they filter lymph fluid

Name the components of the external anatomy of the nodes.

Capsule/trabeculae, Hilus, Afferent vessels, and Efferent vessel

What are the capsules/trabeculae?

Theyre dense fibrous connective tissue that are fibrous extensions which extend into the node

What is the hilus a site for?

Where blood vessels and nerves attach(indentation)

What is the job of the afferent vessels?

They carry fluid from tissues into the node

What do the efferent vessels do?

They carry fluid out of the node

Name the components of the internal anatomy of the nodes.

The subscapular sinus, Outer cortex, Deep cortex, and medulla

What is the subscapular sinus?

Its the area where lymph enters first and is a network of branching reticular fibers, macrophages, and dendritic cells that collect antigens from lymph and this is where the T cells are activated if they encounter antigens

Name the components of the outer cortex of the internal anatomy of the nodes.

The aggragated B cells with germinal centers and the dendritic cells

What are found in the deep cortex?

T cells

What does the medulla of the internal anatomy of the node contain?

B cells and plasma cells that are organized in medullary cords

What is the thymus responsible for?

The production and maturation of T cells

How long does it take for the thymus to produce a T cell?

1-2 years

When does the thymus involute?

During puberty

Once the thymus involutes what happens to it?

It decreases in size and the functional cells are replaced by connective tissue

Name the components of the anatomy of the thymus.

2 lobes, and epithelial cells

Name the 2 types of lobes in the anatomy of the thymus.

Septae and Lobules

Describe the septae lobe of the thymus.

Its a fibrous partition

Name the components of the lobule lobe of the anatomy of the thymus.

The cortex and medulla

Describe the cortex of the lobule.

Its the outer layer of the lobule that contains lymphoid stem cells that mature into T cells

What happens in the medulla portion of the lobule.

T cells migrate here and remain inactive

What is another name for the epithelial cells of the anatomy of the thymus?

Reticular cells

Name the components of the epithelial cells of he anatomy of the thymus.

Thymic hormones and Hassalls corpuscles

What is the job of the thymic hormones in the epithelial cells of the anatomy of the thymus.

They promote the differentiation of T cells

Name the different types of stem cells in the bone marrow.

Stem cells in B cells NK cells and T cells

What happens with the B cells and NK cells stem cells in bone marrow?

They mature there and then migrate into peripheral tissues

What do the NK cells do in the bone marrow?

It continuously circulates through peripheral tissues

Where do the B cells in the bone marrow migrate?

To the lymph nodes, spleen, and lymphatic tissues

Where do the stem cells of the T cells migrate to?

The thymus

What is the largest lymphoid organ?

The spleen

Where is the spleen located?

It lies dorsolateral to the stomach

What does the spleen contain?

The lymph nodules

What is the job of the spleen?

It filters the blood, not the lymph and it removes debris and abnormal red blood cells

What does the spleen store?

It stores Iron(Fe) that are recycled from hemoglobin

What does the spleen trigger?

B and T cell immune response

describe the diaphragmatic surface of the spleen.

Its smooth and conforms in shape to the diaphragm

Describe the visceral surface of the spleen?

Its an indentation and the shape conforms to the stomach and kidney

What components are categorized under the hilus of the spleen?

The splenic artery and vein and the lymphatics

Where is the capsule located?

It surrounds the spleen and is comprised of collagen and elastic fibers

Name the components of the capsule of the spleen.

The red pulp and White pulp

What is found in the red pulp of the capsule?

Red blood cells and fixed macrophages

What is found in the white pulp of the capsule of the spleen?

The lymph nodules

Name the pathways of filtered blood.

Splenic artery, Trabecular arteries, Sinusoids, Small veins, Trabecular veins, Splenic vein, and Heart

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