Name the structures of the lymphatic system.
Lymphatic vessels, Lymph fluid, Lymph nodes, and Lymph organs
Name the components in lymph fluid.
Interstitial fluid(less proteins), lymphocytes, and various macrophages
Name the first function of the lymphatic system.
It produces an immune response by invading organisms(bacteria and viruses), abnormal cells, and foreign particles
Name the second function of the lymphatic system.
Its responsible for the production, distribution, and maintenance of lymphocytes which is called lymphopoiesis which occurs in the bone marrow and thymus
What are T-Cells?
theyre cells that are thymus dependent, and make up 80% of circulating lymphocytes (agranular)
What are the functions of helper T cells and supressor T cells?
They assist in immune response and activate B cells
When are memory T cells produced?
Following exposure to a particular antigen and are on reserve if the same antigen reappears
What are B cells?
Theyre bone marrow dependent cells that make up 10 to 15% of circulating lymphocytes. They differentiate into plasma cells and produce antibodies that are agranular
What is the job of helper T cells that are bone marrow dependent?
They promote differentiation of plasma cells and accelarate production of antibodies
What is the job of supressor T cells that are bone marrow dependent?
They inhibit formation of plasma cells and reduce production of antibodies
What are NK cells?
Theyre cells that make up 5 to 10% of circulating lymphocytes and are granular lymphocytes that attack foreign cells or normal cells invaded with virus and cancer cells
Name the primary lymph organs responsible for the storage of lymphocytes.
Bone marrow and the thymus
What are the secondary organs and what are they responsible for?
Theyre triggered by immune response and theyre immature or activated lymphocytes that divide to produce additional lymphocytes
Name the secondary organs responsible for the storage of lymphocytes.
the spleen, lymph nodes, and lymph nodules
What are lymph nodules?
Theyre lymphocytes that are densely packed within loose connective tissue and are found in the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems
Name the general functions of the lymphatic system.
It produces an immune respons, stores lymphocytes, maintains blood volume, maintinas interstitial fluid, and is responsible for lipid absorption and transport
When the lymphatic system maintins the blood volume what else does it do in those regards?
It returns an equal amount of interstitial fluid to the blood stream
what components of the lymphatic system are responsible for the absorption and transport of lipids?
Name the components of the lymphatic system that are involved in the circulation path.
Interstitial fluid, lymphatic capillaries, and lymphatic vessels, lymphatic ducts, and veins
Where do the right lymphatic ducts drain?
From the right side of the head, thorax, and upper extremities into the right subclavian and the left drains into the left subclavian
What are nodules?
Theyre lymphocytes in loose connective tissue that line the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems
What are the tonsils?
Theyre large nodules in the walls of the pharynx that remove pathogens from food and air
How are the nodes described and what is their job?
Theyre the more defined structures and they filter lymph fluid
Name the components of the external anatomy of the nodes.
Capsule/trabeculae, Hilus, Afferent vessels, and Efferent vessel
What are the capsules/trabeculae?
Theyre dense fibrous connective tissue that are fibrous extensions which extend into the node
Name the components of the internal anatomy of the nodes.
The subscapular sinus, Outer cortex, Deep cortex, and medulla
What is the subscapular sinus?
Its the area where lymph enters first and is a network of branching reticular fibers, macrophages, and dendritic cells that collect antigens from lymph and this is where the T cells are activated if they encounter antigens
Name the components of the outer cortex of the internal anatomy of the nodes.
The aggragated B cells with germinal centers and the dendritic cells
What does the medulla of the internal anatomy of the node contain?
B cells and plasma cells that are organized in medullary cords
Once the thymus involutes what happens to it?
It decreases in size and the functional cells are replaced by connective tissue
Describe the cortex of the lobule.
Its the outer layer of the lobule that contains lymphoid stem cells that mature into T cells
Name the components of the epithelial cells of he anatomy of the thymus.
Thymic hormones and Hassalls corpuscles
What is the job of the thymic hormones in the epithelial cells of the anatomy of the thymus.
They promote the differentiation of T cells
Name the different types of stem cells in the bone marrow.
Stem cells in B cells NK cells and T cells
What happens with the B cells and NK cells stem cells in bone marrow?
They mature there and then migrate into peripheral tissues
What is the job of the spleen?
It filters the blood, not the lymph and it removes debris and abnormal red blood cells
Describe the visceral surface of the spleen?
Its an indentation and the shape conforms to the stomach and kidney
What components are categorized under the hilus of the spleen?
The splenic artery and vein and the lymphatics
Where is the capsule located?
It surrounds the spleen and is comprised of collagen and elastic fibers