Hypothalamic and Pituitary Hormones

Created by kjkenney 

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What organ produces "releasing hormones" and which organ do these hormones primarily impact?

hypothalamus, pituitary

Which organ is stimulated by releasing hormones to produce tropic hormones?

anterior pituitary

Which is by default more important: anterior or posterior pituitary?

anterior pituitary

What is it called when a build up of tropic hormones at target organs inhibit the release of more hormones from the hypothalamus and ant. pituitary?

Negative feedback loop

After being released from the pituitary, where to tropic hormones act?

target organs

What hormones are released from the hypothalamus?

GnRH, CRH, TRH, GHRH, Dopamine/PIH, Somatostatin/GHIH/SRIF

Which hormones that are released from the hypothalamus are inhibitory?

Dopamine/PIH, Somatostatin/GHIH/SRIF

Which hormone is released from the hypothalamus, stimulates somatotropes in the ant. pituitary to release Growth Hormone (GH)?

Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone

Which hormone shuts off Growth Hormone release from ant. pituitary?

Somatostatin

Which hormone is released from the hypothalamus, stimulates the ant. pituitary to produce ACTH?

Corticotropin Releasing Hormone

What hormone is released from the anterior pituitary in response to CRH and stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids?

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

An excess production of ACTH from the pituitary due to neoplasia characterizes what disease?

Hyperadrenocorticism, Cushing's Disease

Inefficient production of cortisol from an adrenal gland that is not responsive to ACTH characterizes what disease?

Hypoadrenocorticism, Addison's Disease

What hormone levels would you expect to see in a Cushnoid patient?

High ACTH, High Cortisol

What hormone levels would you expect to see in an Addisonian patient?

High ACTH, Low Cortisol

How would we test for Cushing's Disease?

ACTH Stimulation tests: measure cortisol levels before giving a dose of ACTH analogues and measure cortisol levels 1 hour after dose. Cushnoid dogs have high cortisol levels before and extremely high cortisol levels after.

What is Cosyntropin used for?

In ACTH stimulation tests

Which hormone is released from the hypothalamus and stimulates thyrotropes in the anterior pituitary to make TSH?

Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone

Which hormone is released from the anterior pituitary in response to TRH and stimulates the Thyroid gland to release T3/T4?

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

How would you test for Hyperthyroidism?

Test for T4 concentration in the blood (easier than testing for T3)

What hormone levels would you see in a patient with hyperthyroidism?

Low TRH, low TSH, and high T4 (disease is usually in the thyroid gland)

What hormone levels would you see in a patient with hypothyroidism?

High TRH, High TSH, Low T4

What hormone is released by the hypothalamus and stimulates the anterior pituitary to release LH and FSH?

Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (both males and females)

What hormones does the posterior pituitary release?

Oxytocin and vasopressin

What hormone acts primarily on the liver to stimulate production of somatomedins/Insulin-like Growth Factors (IGFs) which cause growth by impacting bone, muscle, and various organs?

Growth Hormone

Why are IGFs impt?

They indirectly represent GH levels

What condition is seen when GH levels are low?

Dwarfism

What condition is seen when GH levels are high?

Agromegaly

How would we treat agromegaly?

Somatotropin analogues (Octreotide), Dopamine receptor agonists, GH receptor antagonists

What hormone is released at parturition, stimulates lactation during the post partum period, and is inhibited by dopamine (PIH)?

Prolactin

What is the most likely etiology of milk production in a non-pregnant/male animal? (Galactorrhea)

Posterior pituitary tumor

What hormone is released from the anterior pituitary in response to GnRH and stimulates development of the ovaries/spermatogenesis in the testes?

Follicular Stimulating Hormone

Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) has activity similar to which hormone?

FSH

Which hormone is released by the anterior pituitary in response to GnRH and stimulates estrogen production/testosterone production?

Leuetinizing Hormone

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HGH) has activity similary to which hormone?

LH

What hormone is produced by the hypothalamus, stored in the posterior pituitary, and released in response to sensory stimuli from the vagina, uterus, and suckling?

Oxytocin

What conditions are Oxytocin used as treatment for?

dystocia, to induce labor, to cause milk let down

What hormone is produced in the hypothalamus, stored in the posterior pituitary, and acts on smooth muscle and the renal tubules?

Vasopressin

Which type of diabetes is caused by a lack of vasopressin, most likely due to a problem with production in the hypothalamus?

Central Diabetes Insipidus

Which type of diabetes is caused by unresponsiveness of receptors in renal tubules to ADH?

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

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