chapter 14

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Puberty

The body changes of early adolescence revival those of infancy in speed and drama, The time between the first inrush of hormones and full adult physical development. Usually 3 to 5 years, Many more years are required in order to achieve psychosocial development

Menarche

A girls' first menstrual period, signaling that she has begun ovulation. The pregnancy is biologically possible, but ovulation and menstruation are often irregular for years after menarche. average start age is 12 years old

Spermarche

A boy's first ejaculation of sperm. Erections can occur as early as infancy, but ejaculation signals sperm productions. Spermache occurs during sleep ("wet dreams", ect). Average start at 12

Hormones

an organic chemical substance that is produced by one body tissue and conveyed via the bloodstream to another to affect some physiological function. Various hormones influence thoughts, urges, emotions, and behavior

Pituitary

Gland that, in response to a signal from the hypothalamus, produces many hormones, including those that regulate growth rate and control other glands, among them the adrenal and sex glands

Adrenal glands

The two glands located above the kidneys that produce hormones (stress hormones epinephrine's and nor epinephrine )

HPA axis

(leads from brain to body to behavior) The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, a route followed by many by hormones that regulate stress, growth, sleep, appetite, and sexual excitement as well as puberty

Gonads

Paired sex glands (ovaries and testicles) that produce hormones and gametes

Estradiol

A sex hormone, considered the chief estrogen. Females produce more estradiol than males do.

Testosterone

A sex hormone, the best known of the androgens (male hormones); secreted in far greater amounts by males than by females

Sudden Emotions

behaviors that adolescents are best known for are emotional and sexual:
1. Testosterone at high or acceleration levels stimulates rapid arousal of emotions especially anger
2. Hormonal burst lead to quick emotional extremes
3. For many boys, the increase in androgens causes sexual thought and a desire to masturbate
4. For many girls, the fluctuation estrogens increase happiness in the middle of periods (at ovulation) and sadness or anger towards the end

When will puberty start?

age varies, but average age is 11 or 12, but it is still considered normal between ages 8 and 14

Genes

Genes on the sex chromosomes markedly affect the onset of puberty. On average, girls are about 2 years ahead of boys in height. Hormonally and sexually girls are ahead by only a few months. They influence the timing of puberty in other ways as well such as being monozygotic twins vs. dizygotic twins, and African Americans tend to hit puberty before European Americans and Latin Americans

Body fat

Genetic differences are apparent only when every child is fed well. Stocky individuals begin puberty before those with thinner builds, In both sexes chronic malnutrition delays puberty

Secular Trend

Term that refers to the earlier and greater growth of children due to improves nutrition and medical care over the last two centuries

Stress

The production of many hormones directly connected to stressful experiences via the HPA axis, Affects pubertal hormones by increasing them, Puberty tends to arrive earlier if child's parents are sick, addicted or divorced, or when the neighborhood is violent and impoverished.

What are some possible problems of early-maturing?

No one wants to be too early or too late, Early-maturing girls tend to have lower self-esteem, more depression, poorer body image, and boy-friends several years older. Often isolated from their on-time maturing peers, and tend to associate with older adolescents. Cohort is crucial for boys. Early-maturing boys tend to be more successful as adults. However, early-maturing boys who live in stressful urban neighborhoods and are likely to befriend somewhat older boys who engage in law-breaking

Nutrition and it's affects on puberty

Changes in puberty depend on nutrition. Many adolescents are deficient in necessary vitamins or minerals

Diet deficiencies

Fewer that ½ of all teens consume the recommended daily dose of iron. More girls are anemic due to iron depletion during menstruation. ½ of adult bone mass is acquired from age 10-20, yet few adolescents consume enough calcium

Body image and it's affects on puberty

Puberty alters the entire body image making it impossible for teenagers to welcome every change. Girls diet to become thinner and Boys want to look taller and stronger. Stressed teenagers eat erratically or ingest drugs hoping to lose weight. Adolescents can give up, become lazy and fat instead of strong and thin. 12% of US teens are overweight

Body image

a person's idea oh how his/her body looks

transformation of puberty

The transformations from a child into an adult traditionally divided into two parts: growth and sexuality and brain. Growing bigger and stronger

Growth Spurt

The relatively sudden and rapid physical growth that occurs during puberty

order of growth

Growth proceeds from the extremities to the core. Fingers and toes lengthen before hands and feet. Torso is the last part of the body to grow

Sequence

Weight, Height, Muscles: Bones lengthen and harden, Children eat more and gain weight. When, where and how much weight depends on heredity, diet, exercise and gender. Girls gain much more fat than boys. By age 17 the average girl has twice as much fat as her male classmate

Other Body Changes

Organs grow and become more efficient, Lungs triple in weight, and the heart doubles in size and beats more slowly. These changes increase physical endurance and Weight and height increase before the growth of muscles and internal organ

Sexual Body changes

Primary Sexual characteristics and secondary sexual characteristics

Primary Sexual Characteristics

The parts of the body that are directly involved in reproduction, including vagina, uterus, ovaries, testicles, and penis

Secondary Sexual Characteristics

Physical traits that are to directly involved in reproduction but that indicate sexual maturity, such as a man's beard and a woman's breast

Sexual Activity

Fantasizing, flirting, hand-holding, displaying, and touching are all done in particular ways to reflect gender, availability, and culture. Hormones trigger thought and emotions, but the social context shapes thoughts into enjoyable fantasies, shameful preoccupations, frightening impulses, or actual contact

Brain development

The limbic system (fear and emotional impulses) matures before the prefrontal cortex (planning ahead, emotional regulation). The frontal lobes are the last part of the brain to develop, Ongoing myelination from 10 to 25.

affects of uneven brain growth

The immature prefrontal cortex may allow troublesome adolescent behavior. Adolescents are capable of rational thought

Neurological advances

With increased myelination, reactions become lightening fast. Pruning occurs, and the dopamine system neurotransmitters that bring pleasure-is very active

Body Rhythms

Brain rhythms affect body rhythms and The brain of every living creature responds to natural changes. Puberty alters biorhythms and Sleep patterns are irregular

Possible problems during Puberty

Growth and sexual awakening, emotional intensity and hormonal rushes, can all be quite wonderful. Maturation can cause problems and 20% of young people have one problem or several while 80% don't have problems at all

Sex too soon

Adolescent sexuality can be problematic, Puberty occurs at young ages- early sexual experiences correlate with depression and drug use. Raising a child has become more complex, which means that teenage pregnancy is no longer welcomed or expected. Sexually transmitted infections are more common and dangerous

Teen pregnancy

½ as common as it was 20 years ago in the US. Abortion rate has also increased. Contraception use is higher and teen intercourse Is lower

Sexual infections

STI (sexually transmitted infections) is A disease spread by sexual content: syphilis, HIV, genital herpes, gonorrhea

Protection

Regular medical care can prevent and treat STI's. Almost every teenager knows that pregnancy and STI's can be prevented. Teens tend to confuse appearance and reality; well-dresses partners could have STI's

Child Sexual Abuse

Any erotic activity that arouses an adult and excites, shames, or confuses a child, whether or not the victim protects and whether or not genital contact is involved. Most for children btwn ages 12-15

Drug Use and Abuse

Worldwide most young people use at least one drug before age 18. Drug use varies from nation to nation. Laws and family practices are a part of the reason for these variations. Gender differences are apparent for most drugs, with boys having higher rates of use than girls

Harm from drugs

Adolescents think adults exaggerate the harm of teen drug use. Drugs interfere with healthy eating and digestion. Drugs appear to make problems better which leads to abuse and addiction

Generational Forgetting

The idea that each new generations forget what the previous generation learned about harmful drugs

The growth spurt begins with a(n):

increase in bone length

The adolescent's ability to plan, to reflect, to analyze, and to decide is a function of the:

prefrontal Cortex

The experimental antidrug program that has police officers go into classrooms and teach children and adolescents about the harmfulness of drug usage is called:

D.A.R.E.

An adolescent's statement that, "But, Mother, you just don't understand; nobody understands!" is indicative of:

Adolescent egocentrism

The hormone that causes the ovaries and testes to greatly increase their production of estradiol and testosterone is:

the gonadotropin-releasing hormone.

According to the text, in health children, puberty typically begins at age ___ for girls and at age ___ for boys.

12, 12

Ryan's thinking is no longer restricted to personal experience as it had been earlier in life. Ryan is in the stage of:

formal operational thought

Identify the true statement about adolescents' intuitive thought.

It is considered a separate pathway from analytic thought.

According to the results of the Programme for International Student Assessment, countries with the highest and lowest problem-solving scores among 15-year-olds are:

Korea and Indonesia

An unintended consequence of high-stakes testing is:

increased dropout rates.

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