F451 APMCs Literary Terms
|Allegory|| a story with a hidden or symbolic meaning.|
ex. Animal Farm.
|Alliteration|| the purposeful repetition of the initial consonant sounds. |
ex. "Let us go forth to lead the land we love."
|Allusion|| a reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, or work of art.|
ex. Tower of Babel.
|Anaphora|| one of the devices of repetition, in which the same expression (word or words) is repeated at the beginning of two or more lines, clauses, or sentences.|
ex. "We shall... We shall... We shall..."
|Anecdote||a short, often autobiographical, narrative told to achieve a purpose such as to provide an example, an illustration, or thematic truth.|
|Antithesis|| a direct contrast of structually parallel word groupings, generally for the purpose of contrast.|
ex. sink or swim.
|Aphorism|| a statement of some general principle, expresses memorably by condensing much wisdom into a few words.|
ex. "Without pain there is no gain."
|Apostrophe|| a figure of speech in which a speaker directly adresses an inanimate object or an absent person or a personified quality.|
ex. O Romeo.
"Death be not proud".
|Balanced Sentence|| in grammar, a sentence with two clauses or phrases of fairly equal in length and strength for clarity |
ex. "The novel concentrates on character; the film intensifies the violence," is a balanced sentence.
|Chiasmus|| parallel structure in inverted/mirror form- two corresponding pairs arranged not in parrallels (a-b-a-b) but in inverted order (a-b-b-a). |
ex. "The truth is the light and the light is the truth.".
|Conceit||an elaborate, complex metaphor or simile comparing two extremely disssimilar things.|
|Cumulative Sentence||same as a loose sentence, this sentece makes complete sense if brought to a close before actual ending. Begins with the main ideas and then expands on that idea with a series of details or other particulars. (opposite of periodic sentence.).|
|Ellipsis|| the deliberate omission of a word or words implied by the context and by the parrallel structure.|
ex. "To err is human; to forgive, divine."
|Epiphany||a sudden understanding or realization which prior to this time was not thought of or understood.|
|Euphemism|| a device where being indirect replaces directness to avoid embarrassment or unpleasantness.|
ex. rest room for toliet.
|Foreshadowing||the use in literary work of clues that suggest events that have yet to occur.|
|Hyperbole|| a deliberate exaggeration or overstatement.|
ex. we have been walking for years!.
|Irony|| the general name give to literary techniques that involve difference between apperance and reality, expectation and result, or meaning and intention.|
ex. fireman dieing in a fire.
|Litotes|| a form of understatement in which a thing is affirmed by stating the negative of its opposite.|
ex. it was not a pretty picture.
|Metaphor|| a figure of speech in which one thing is spoken as though it were something else. |
ex. life is a broken-winged bird.
|Metonymy|| a figure of speech in which the name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it. |
ex. i love shakespear. (you dont really love the man, you love his works.).
|Non Sequitur||besides being a very funny cartoon strip, it is a latin term which refers to a conclusion or inference that does not logically follow.|
|Onomatopeia|| the use of words to imitate sounds.|
|Oxymoron|| a two-word figure of speech that combines two opposing or contradictory ideas.|
ex. freezing fire.
|Parable|| a short allegorical story designed to illustrate or teach some truth, religious principle, or moral lesson. |
a statement or comment that conveys a meaning indirectly by the use of comparison, analogy, or the like.
moral, told to someone else.
|Paradox|| an assertion seemingly opposed to common sense, but may yet have some truth in it. |
ex. "What a pity that youth must be wasted on the young.".
|Pathos|| that quality in a real situation or in a literary work which evokes sympathy and a feeling of sorrow/pity, usually indicating a helpless suffering caused by outside forces.|
ex. the animal cruelity commercials.
|Periodic Sentence||a sentence that places the mian idea or central complete thought at the end of the sentece, after all introductory elements. this effect is a kind of suspence, as a reader's attention is propelled towards the end. (opposite of a cumulative sentence.).|
|Personification|| a type of figurative language in which a nonhuman subject is given human characteristics.|
ex. the house jumped.
|Polysyndenton|| the repetion or conjunctions in a series of coordinate words, phrases, or clauses.|
ex. and... and... and....
|Simile|| a figure of speech in which like, as, or than is used to make a comparison between two basically unlike subjects.|
ex. she is as flighty as a sparrow.
|Syllepsis|| a construction in which one word seems to be in the same grammatical relation to two or more words but, in fact, is not.|
ex. he lost both his coat and his temper.
|Syllogism|| a form of deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion. transitive property; a=b b=c, the a=c.|
ex. all men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal.
|Symbolism|| an object that has its own meaning, but also represents an abstract idea.|
ex. flag representing our country.
|Synecdoche|| a form of metaphor in which part of something is used to stand for the whole thing.|
ex. all hands on deck.
|Synesthesia|| the concurrent response of two or more of the senses to the stimulation of one.|
ex. a loud shirt.
|Syntax||the physical arrangement of words in a sentence.|
|Understatement|| saying less than is actually meant, generally in an ironic way.|
ex. saying pretty fair but meaning splendid.