country controlled by a more powerful country
independent/less developed nations controlled by private business interests rather than by other govt's. ex) Dole fruit company controlled by pineapple trade in Hawaii
"scramble for africa"
started by berlin conference, competition for land in Africa.
meeting of european nations and US to discuss division or africa and how nations should proceed in getting territory
dutch descended colonist living in south africa
language of afrikaners
dutch farmers in european settlements
afrikaners leaving the cape and moving inland
south african/boer war
afrikaners from great trek had conflict with african kingdoms over land and resources. african surrended, british won.
king leopold the second
In charge of the gathering of rubber and the exploitation of the Congo and its inhabitants. began imperialistic trade inside africa.
congo free state
Nation set up under Belgian control; quickly became on of the largest scandals at the turn of the Century; the Belgian government would take over the free state and turn it into the Belgian Congo, curbing some of the worse offenses, such as forced labor.
analyzed trade btw. congo and everywhere else, noticed that 80% of the imports were for equipping a military state
A British Consul famous for his reports on atrocities in the Congo. The Casement Report delivered in 1904 was instrumental in the dismantling of Leopold's Congo. It was a 40 page report filled with eye witness testimonies of the killings in the Congo due to the rubber trade.
British East India Company
joint-stock company controlled most of India, controlled political, social, economic life in India
period where br. gov't ruled india DIRECTLY. end of mughal empire
The revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs; also known as the Sepoy Mutiny.
economic system based on the exportation of certain crops
Indian National Congress
purpose of ending br. control, peaceful protests to gain ends, called for greater democracy, brought more power to Indians.
Br. declared war on china b/c chinese officials attempted to ban importation of opium, br. military technology allowed them to win and force chinese into UNEQUAL TREATIES
guaranteed european citizens in china were only subject to laws of their own nation. result or unequal treaties
most favored nation status
rights given to other nations would also be given to british
wanted to modernize china, failed. crushed by loyal regional governers and generals.
drove out "foreign devils", crushed by western powers/japan.
hundred days of reform
chinese reformers blamed CONSERVATIVE officials for not modernizing, Guang Xu set up new laws, civil service, steamline gov't, Ci Xi reasserted control.
empress, imported western technology, factories to make weapons, wanted to keep china the same. used westerners as army to crush hundred days of reform
Sun Yixian/ Sun Yat-Sen
3 principles, ends dynastic cycle, created first republic (democracy)
nationalism, democracy, livelihood/economic status
open door policy
US declares china open, forced to open completely for trade.