Chapter 13

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chapter 13

Greek City- State Pair

Athens and Sparta

Crusades

A series of holy wars from 1096-1270 AD undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule

Aqueducts

structures that carried water over long distances

Holocaust

the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler

Euro

Currency

Parliment

the lawmaking branch of the British government

Berlin Wall

In 1961, the Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany. The wall was torn down in 1989

Folk Art

handmade items, such as pottery, woodcarving, and traditional costumes, produced by professional artisans

Anti-Semitism

opposition to and discrimination against Jews

Cultural Crossroads

A place where various cultures cross paths

Silicon Glen

the section of Scotland between Glasgow and Edinburgh, named for its high concentration of high-tech companies

Balkanization

The contentious political process by which a state may break up into smaller countries

Renaissance

The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history

Italy

Birthplace of the Renaissance

Rome

A republic, contrlled most of the empire

Catholic Rulers

Ferdinand and Isabella

Christopher Columbus

1492 sailed to the Portugal

Alexander the Great

coquered Persia and part of India

Bubonic Plaque

a deadly disease that spread across Asia and Europe in the mid-14th century, killing millions of people

Muslims

controlled Iberian Peninsula for more than 700 years

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