# gen bio lab

## 52 terms

### discovery science

uses verifiable observations and measurements to describe science

### hypothesis based science

testing explanations using experiments.

### problem

forming a question based on your observations

### hypothesis

possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question

### active hypothesis

actively tries to explain the prediction and ways that the experiment will help.

### null hypothesis

a statistical hypothesis of "no difference" or "no relation" in populations represented by the samples

### independent variable

Factor in an experiment that researchers manipulate so that they can determine its effect, manipulated variable

### dependent variable

the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

### discrete variable

A variable that does have a minimum-sized unit. Examples: the number of children in a family, money. You can't have 2.5 children, or \$100.5555, a quantitative variable whose values are countable

### continuous variable

A variable that does not have a minimum-sized unit by definition. Examples: length, time. You can have an hour, minute, second, half second, .01 second, etc.

### uncontrolled variables

Those variables that have influenced the result as their presence was not accounted for (and removed) in the experimental method. Uncontrolled variables which cause a change in the value of the dependent variable are termed 'confounding variables'.

### control group

provides a normal standard against which the biologist can compare results of the experimental group

### treatment group

The group that is receiving experimental treatment.

### experimental control

a standard to which you compare results; the normal state

the question

### data analysis

the process of compiling, analyzing, and interpreting the results of primary and secondary data collection.

### mean

an average of n numbers computed by adding some function of the numbers and dividing by some function of n

### median

The middle number in a set of numbers that are listed in order

### standard error

an estimate of variation among means of samples drawn from a population., the standard deviation of a sampling distribution

### significant difference

This is a technical term that refers to differences between groups which, according to a variety of statistical tests, are unlikely to have happened by chance. Such differences can be small or large. Their 'significance' is due to the consistency of the differences as well as their size.

### solute

the dissolved substance in a solution

### solvent

a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances

### chemical gradient

a difference in the concentration of substance between two places

### diffusion

the act of dispersing or diffusing something

### osmosis

diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal

### active transport

transport of a substance (as a protein or drug) across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient

### hypoosmotic

A term describing organisms with body fluids with a higher concentration of water and lower solute concentration than the external environment.

### isoosmotic

solutions have equal numbr of solute particles per unit

### hyperosmotic

internal salt is greater than environment, i.e. freshwater

### photosynthesis

synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiant energy (especially in plants)

### transmittance

the fraction of radiant energy that passes through a substance

### reflectance

the fraction of radiant energy that is reflected from a surface

### absorbance

To take light in and not reflect or refract it.

### sex linked genes

A gene that is carried on the X or Y chromosome

### autosomal

all the other genes in the body that are not sex-linked.

### chromosome

a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order

### law of segregation

members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair

### law of independent assortment

each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random

### biotechnology

A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.

### genetic engineering

the technology of preparing recombinant DNA in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and splicing together fragments from more than one organism

### dna cloning

putting a piece of DNA into a cell and allowing the cell to REPLICATE

### plasmid

a small cellular inclusion consisting of a ring of DNA that is not in a chromosome but is capable of autonomous replication

### restriction enzyme

any of the enzymes that cut nucleic acid at specific restriction sites and produce restriction fragments

### transformation

(genetics) modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA

### competent cells

able to take up DNA from the environment; naturally a transient state and more common in dense cultures and controlled by quorum sensing and secreted competence factors

### thermalcycler

heat separates the DNA into single strands, it is then cooled to allow new nucleotides to attach. The number of strands double. This process is repeated 20-30 times to produce billions of copies within a few hours.

### primers

Artificially made pieces of single-stranded DNA that are 20 to 30 nucleotides long that must be present for DNA polymerase to initiate replication

### deoxynucleotides

modified nucleotide that lacks the 2' hydroxyl group of the ribose. Deoxynucleotides are used to produce DNA, ONLY! RNA IS NOT DEOXY!

### taq polymerase

an enzyme that replicates DNA and remains stable in hot conditions

### gel electrophoresis

procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel

### agarose

a carbohydrate from seaweed that is widely used as a medium for horizontal gel electrophoresis

### sybr green

type of real-time PCR
when the dye is in the free state in the liquid it almost doesn't emit any florescence
when the dye combines with double-stranded DNA it's morphology changes and emits a strong fluorescence
not sequence specific, picks up any double-stranded DNA
needs to be well optimized for clinical application