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articulations

functional junctions between bones.

Fibrous Joints

dense connective tissue; many collagenous fibers; bones are close together; 3 types

Syndesmosis

Fibrous joints; bones are bound by long fibers of connective tissue that form an interosseous ligament.

Amphiarthrotic

permit slight movement

Suture

only between bones of the skull; sutural ligament

Sutural ligament

thin layer of dense connective tissue

Synarthrotic

immovable joints

Gomphosis

formed by union of cone-shaped bony process in a bony socket. periodontal ligament

periodontal ligament

surrounds the root and firmly attaches to the jaw with thick bundles of collagenous fibers

Cartilaginous Joints

hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage; two types

Synchondrosis

bands of hyaline cartilage unite bones; many are temporary structures; manubrium and first rib

Symphysis

limited amount of movement; articular surfaces are covered by thin layer of hyaline cartilage and this cartilage is attached to fibrocartilage.

Synovial Joints

more complex structurally; consist of articular cartilage, joint capsule, and synovial membrane

Diarthrotic

free movement

synovial membrane

secrete synovial fluid; inner layer of a joint capsule; consists of a shiny, vascular lining of loose CT; few cells thick

Joint Capsule

tubular; two distinct layers, holds together the bones of synovial joint. outer layer-dense CT

Ligaments

bundles of strong, touch collagenous fibers; reinforce joint capsules

synovial fluid

viscous fluid

menisci

fibrocartilage, located between articular surfaces. ex: knee-crescent shaped

bursae

fluid filled sacs, has inner lining of synovial membrane. contian synovial fluid. between skin and bony prominences

ball and socket joint

bones with globular or egg-shaped head that articulates with cup shaped cavity.

condyloid joint

ovoid condyle of one bone fits into the elliptical cavity of another bones. variety of movements, no rotation

gliding joints

nearly flat or slightly curved, sliding or twisting

hinge joint

convex surface of one bone fits into concave surface surface of another; flexion and extenstion

pivot joint

cylindrical surface of one bone articulates with ring of bone and fibrous tissue; rotation around central axis

saddle joint

both concave and convex regions, one bone is complementary surface to the other; variety of movements in two planes

flexion

bending parts at a joint so that the angle between them decreases and parts come closer together

extension

straightening parts of a joint so the angle between them increases and parts move farther apart

dorsiflexion

bending foot upward

plantar flexion

bending the foot downward

abduction

moving part away from mid line

hyperextension

bending head back beyond the upright position

adduction

moving a part toward the mid line

rotation

moving a part around an axis

circumduction

moving a part so that its end follows a circular path

supination

turning the hand so the palm is upward; anterior

pronation

turning the hand so the palm is downward

eversion

turning the foot so the sole faces laterally

inversion

turning the foot so the sole faces medially

protraction

moving a part forward

retraction

moving a part backward

elevation

raising a part

depression

lowering a part

Shoulder Joint

Synovial jt. ball and socket joint that consists of the rounded head of the humerus and glenoid cavity of scapula

Coracohumeral ligament

composed of broad band of CT that connects coracoid process to greater tubercle of humerus.

Glenohumeral ligaments

three bands of fibers that appear as thickenings in the ventral wall of the joint capsule.

Transverse Humeral ligament

consists of a narrow sheet of CT fibers that runs between the lesser and greater tubercles of the humerus

Glenoid Labrum

composed of fibrocartilage, attached to margin of glenoid cavity and forms a rim.

Elbow joint

complex structure, includes two articulations (hinge joint and gliding joint)

Ulnar collateral ligament

thick band of Dense CT, located in the medial wall of the capsule.

Radial collateral ligament

strengthens the lateral wall of the joint capsule, fibrous band

Hip Joint

ball and socket joint that consists of the head of femur and acetabulum of the coxa.

Iliofemoral ligament

consits of Y-shaped band of very strong fibers that connect the anterior inferior iliac spine of the coxa to the intertrochanteric line of the femur. strongest ligament of the body

Pubofemoral ligament

extends between the superior portion of pubis and the iliofemoral ligament. fibers blend with the fibers of the joint capsule

ischiofemoral ligament

consists of a band of strong fibers that originates on the ischium posterior to acetabulum, blends with fibers of joint capsule

Knee Joint

largest and most complex of synovial joints

patellar ligament

continuation of a tendon from a large muscle group in the thigh. strong, flat band that extends from patella to tibial tuberosity

oblique popliteal ligament

connects the lateral condyle of femur to margin of the head of the tibia.

Arcuate popliteal ligament

appears Y-shaped system of fibers that extends from lateral condyle of femur to head of fibula.

Tibial collateral ligament

broad, flat band of tissue that connects medial condyle of femur to medial condyle of tibia

Fibular collateral ligament

consist of a strong, round cord located between the lateral condyle of the femur and head of fibula

cruciate ligaments

(fibular collateral ligament) help prevent displacement of the articulating surfaces

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