Quiz Chapter 8 & 9

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C. It would be longer than normal.

How would the absolute refractory period be affected if voltage-gated sodium channels remained inactivated?

A. It would be shorter than normal.
B. none of the above
C. It would be longer than normal.
D. It would be the same whether the channels remained inactivated or not.

A. The Na+ inactivation gate closes.

What stops the rising phase of the action potential?

A. The Na+ inactivation gate closes.
B. The sodium activation gate closes.
C. The Na+ activation gate opens.
D. The Na+ inactivation gate opens.
E. The K+ gate closes.

B. able to see letters but unable to associate them into words.

A person with a damaged visual association area may be

A. unable to understand spoken words.
B. able to see letters but unable to associate them into words.
C. declared legally blind.
D. unable to see rows of letters.
E. unable to recognize letters but able to identify whole words and their meanings.

C. sensitization

You used to love to drink milk when you were a child. Lately, you notice that your stomach hurts and you experience bloating and discomfort when you drink it. It is no longer inviting when you see someone else drinking it. What kind of learning has occurred?

A. associative
B. habituation
C. sensitization
D. nonassociative

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

The measurement of brain activity is recorded by a procedure known as __________.

B. perception.

The brain's interpretation of sensory stimuli is called

A. cognition.
B. perception.
C. lateralization.
D. emotion.
E. proprioception.

E. convergence.

The pattern of synaptic connectivity where a large number of presynaptic neurons provide input to a single postsynaptic neuron, is known as

A. divergence.
B. integration.
C. potentiation.
D. saltatory conduction.
E. convergence.

B. temporal lobe.

The auditory cortex is located in the

A. occipital lobe.
B. temporal lobe.
C. parietal lobe.
D. frontal lobe.
E. insula.

D. occipital lobe.

The visual cortex is located in the

A. parietal lobe.
B. insula.
C. temporal lobe.
D. occipital lobe.
E. frontal lobe.

A. multiple graded potentials arriving at one location simultaneously.

Spatial summation refers to

A. multiple graded potentials arriving at one location simultaneously.
B. suprathreshold potentials triggering action potentials that are extra large.
C. all of the above
D. electrical signals reaching neurons from outer space.
E. repeated graded potentials reaching the trigger zone one after the other.

D. chemical

Which type of synapse is most prevalent in the nervous system?

A. radiative
B. mechanical
C. processing
D. chemical
E. electrical

A. axons.

Action potentials occur in the membrane of

A. axons.
B. cell bodies.
C. dendrites.
D. A and C
E. B and C

C. whether axon is sensory or motor

Which of the following does NOT influence the time necessary for a nerve impulse to be conveyed by a particular neuron?

A. presence or absence of nodes of Ranvier
B. diameter of the axon
C. whether axon is sensory or motor
D. presence or absence of a myelin sheath
E. length of the axon

A. signals the exocytosis of the neurotransmitter.

Calcium is important in the synapse because it

A. signals the exocytosis of the neurotransmitter.
B. leaves the axon terminal, hyperpolarizing the cell.
C. is necessary for acetylcholine synthesis.
D. binds to receptors on the postsynaptic cell, opening ion channels, and triggering graded potentials.

A. absolute

An increased threshold is associated with the __________ refractory period.

A. absolute
B. relative

B. Na+ flow into the cell.

The rising phase of the action potential is due to

A. K+ flow into the cell.
B. Na+ flow into the cell.
C. K+ flow out of the cell.
D. Na+ flow out of the cell.
E. B and D

E. collaterals.

Branches that sometimes occur along the length of an axon are called

A. axon hillocks.
B. dendrites.
C. synapses.
D. axon terminals.
E. collaterals.

B. only in the CNS.

Interneurons are found

A. only in spinal nerves.
B. only in the CNS.
C. only in the spinal cord.
D. only in the brain.
E. throughout the nervous system.

A. associative.

When a puppy is scolded "No!" each time he chews on your ficus tree, eventually he learns to leave the tree alone. This type of learning is called

A. associative.
B. habituation.
C. sensitization.
D. nonassociative.

C. 2

Figure 11-2 The Nerve Action Potential

Use Figure 11-2 to answer the following questions:

Which area of the graph occurs when there is a sudden inrush of sodium ions?

A. 3
B. 1
C. 2
D. 4

C. 4

Figure 11-2 The Nerve Action Potential

Use Figure 11-2 to answer the following questions:

When is the neuron in the refractory period?

A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 1

D. extra sodium ions enter a cell.

EPSPs (excitatory postsynaptic potentials) occur when

A. more potassium ions than usual leak out of a cell.
B. more calcium ions than usual leak out of a cell.
C. hyperpolarizations occur.
D. extra sodium ions enter a cell.
E. chloride ions enter a cell.

C. synapse.

The site of intercellular communication between neurons is the

A. telodendria.
B. hillock.
C. synapse.
D. synaptic knob.
E. collateral.

C. temporal summation

When a second EPSP arrives at a single synapse before the effects of the first have disappeared, what occurs?

A. spatial summation
B. hyperpolarization
C. temporal summation
D. inhibition of the impulse
E. decrease in speed of impulse transmission

D. memory

Which of the following is not a function of the neuroglia?

A. phagocytosis
B. secretion of cerebrospinal fluid
C. maintenance of blood-brain barrier
D. memory
E. support

E. 3 and 4

Figure 11-1 The Neuron

Use Figure 11-1 to answer the following questions:

Which part of the neuron can conduct an action potential?

A. 1 and 2
B. 1
C. 3, 4, and 5
D. 2 and 3
E. 3 and 4

B. Both statements are true and relate to synaptic transmission.

Figure 11-1 The Neuron

Use Figure 11-1 to answer the following questions:

The structures labeled "1" are dendrites. Their membranes contain numerous chemically gated ion channels.

A. The first statement is true but the second statement is false.
B. Both statements are true and relate to synaptic transmission.
C. The first statement is false but the second statement is true.
D. Both statements are false.
E. Both statements are true.

A. oligodendrocytes.

The myelin sheath that covers many CNS axons is formed by

A. oligodendrocytes.
B. ependymal cells.
C. satellite cells.
D. astrocytes.
E. microglia.

D. 3 intracellular sodium ions for 2 extracellular potassium ions.

At the normal resting potential of a typical neuron, its Na-K ion exchange pump transports

A. 2 intracellular sodium ions for 1 extracellular potassium ion.
B. 3 extracellular sodium ions for 2 intracellular potassium ions.
C. 1 intracellular sodium ion for 2 extracellular potassium ions.
D. 3 intracellular sodium ions for 2 extracellular potassium ions.
E. 3 intracellular sodium ions for 1 extracellular potassium ion.

D. formation of cerebrospinal fluid.

Damage to ependymal cells would most likely affect the

A. transport of neurotransmitters within axons.
B. repair of axons.
C. formation of myelin sheaths.
D. formation of cerebrospinal fluid.
E. formation of ganglia.

A. satellite cells

Which of the following are a type of glial cell found in the peripheral nervous system?

A. satellite cells
B. astrocytes
C. microglia
D. ependymal cells
E. oligodendrocytes

C. why CNS neurons cannot divide.

Most CNS neurons lack centrioles. This observation explains

A. why CNS neurons grow such long axons.
B. the ability of neurons to communicate with each other.
C. why CNS neurons cannot divide.
D. the ability of neurons to produce a resting potential.
E. the ability of neurons to generate an action potential.

D. Bipolar

________ neurons are short, with a cell body between dendrite and axon, and occur in special sense organs.

A. Anaxonic
B. none of the above
C. Multipolar
D. Bipolar
E. Unipolar

B. in the membrane that covers axons.

Voltage-gated channels are present

A. on the surface of dendrites.
B. in the membrane that covers axons.
C. at the motor end plate.
D. along the perikaryon of neurons.
E. on the soma of neurons.

C. unipolar.

Sensory neurons of the PNS are

A. anaxonic.
B. bipolar.
C. unipolar.
D. tripolar.
E. multipolar.

B. It would last indefinitely.

How would the absolute refractory period be affected if voltage-regulated sodium channels failed to inactivate?

A. It would be much briefer.
B. It would last indefinitely.
C. It would be basically unaffected.

C. Chemically gated channels

________ open or close in response to binding specific molecules.
A. Voltage-gated channels
B. Leak channels
C. Chemically gated channels
D. Activated channels
E. both C and D

A. leak

Ion channels that are always open are called ________ channels.

A. leak
B. gated
C. active
D. regulated
E. local

C. anaxonic

Neurons that are rare, small, and lack features that distinguish dendrites from axons are called

A. unipolar.
B. bipolar
C. anaxonic
D. tripolar
E. multipolar

E. spatial summation.

Summation that results from the cumulative effect of multiple synapses at multiple places on the neuron is designated

A. temporal summation.
B. inhibition of the impulse.
C. hyperpolarization.
D. impulse transmission.
E. spatial summation.

D. 3

Figure 11-2 The Nerve Action Potential

Use Figure 11-2 to answer the following questions:

Which point of the graph shows when potassium ion outflow exceeds sodium ion inflow?

A. 2
B. 4
C. 1
D. 3

B. reabsorbs the choline.

After acetylcholinesterase acts, the synaptic knob

A. reabsorbs the acetylcholine.
B. reabsorbs the choline.
C. reabsorbs the acetate.
D. all of the above
E. both B and C

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