the selling or buying of a position in a Christian church.
St. Francis of Assisi
Italian who founded another order of friars called the Franciscans.
a style of church architecture developed in medievil Europe.
Read the letter/appeal from the Byzantine emperor Alexius Comnenus to Robert, Count of Flanders in 1093.
a "holy war" issued to gain control of the Holy Land.
Became the Muslim leader of Jerusalem when it fell to him in 1187
Richard the Lion-Hearted
one of the three powerful monarchs that led the Third Crusade to recapture Jerusalem.
a long effort to drive the muslims out of spain.
A tribunal held by the church to suppress heresy.
farmers could grow crops on two thirds of their land each year, not just on half of it.
an association of people who worked at the same occupation.
Town dwellers who resented the interference of expanded trade in their trade and commerce.
everyday language of someones homeland.
wrote The Divine Comedy in 1321 in Italian.
wrote The Canterbury Tales in about 1387-1400 in English.
argued that most basic religious truths could be proved by logical argument.
Schoolmen who used their knowledge of Aristotle to debate many issues of their time.
William the Conqueror
duke of Normandy
added to the land owned by William the Conqueror by marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine
Eleanor of Aquitaine
brought with her more lands from France when marrying Henry II
the most celebrated document in English history that guaranteed certain basic political rights.
one of the most powerful Capetians who ruled France from 1180 to 1223.
Phillip II's grandson who ruled France from 1226 to 1270.
city in France where popes lives for 67 years.
split of the church, division.
challenged the papacy and preached that Jesus Christ was the true leader of the church.
taught that the authority of the bible was higher than that of the pope
deadly disease that killed one third of Europe's population.
Hundred Years' War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families.
Joan of Arc
peasant French girl, saw visions from God and led the French army to victories