The search for identity begins at puberty and continues through adulthood and Each stage's crises provides the foundation for each new era, as is evident in the emerging adult
in the US and canada 1/2 of the 18-25 year olds are either children of immigrant or native born americans of african, asian, indian or latino descent and most individuals identify with very specific ethnic groups; ex. vietnamese, pakistani, korean americans (not simply asian)
ethnicity is particularly important to many emerging adults and emerging adults meet many more people of other backgrounds. many european americans also understand the importance of their own ethnicity; ex ukrainian catholic or russian jewish
Struggle of identity
everyone struggles to forge an identity, this is particularly difficult for immigrants and combining past and future means reconciling their parent background with their new social context. choices affect language, manners, romance, employment, neighborhood, religion, clothing, and values
1. it is reciprocal, both a personal choice and a response to others 2. it depend son context and therefore changes with time and circumstances 3. it is multifaceted, emerging adults choose some attributes and rejects others
part of growing up. college is considered an important step towards a career. a correlation between college education and income has been evident. few unskilled jobs have been created in the 21st century
Intimacy Vs. Isolation
The sixth of erikson's eight stages of development. Adults seek someone with whom to share their lives in an enduring and self-sacrificing commitment. Without intimacy adults suffer from loneliness and isolation
Friends defend against stress and provide joy throughout life. Friends are chosen for understanding, tolerance, loyalty, affection, humor. Friends are earned, they choose us, unlike family
gateway to attraction
the various qualities that are prerequisites for the formation of close friendships and intimate relationships. physical attractiveness (even in platonic same sex relationships). Apparent availability (willingness to talk, to do things together). Frequent exposure. Absence of exclusion criteria (no unacceptable characteristics.
Gender and Friendship
men and women have the same friendship needs, Humans seek intimacy throughout life, men tend to share activities and interests, women have friendships that are more intimate and emotional and male female differences may be cultural and seem to be less stereotyped among contemporary emerging adults. cross sex friendships have potential problems and outsiders may believe the relationship is sexual. heterosexual couples tend to have fewer cross sex friendships to avoid partner jealousy. keeping a sexual relationship "just friendly" is sometimes difficult
Romance and Relationships
couples are marrying later and divorcing more often than earlier cohorts. Marriage is being postponed, not abandoned. The relationships between love and marriage depends on culture
The Dimensions of love
love is not a simple emotion and not something universally recognized as the glue that holds a relationship together
Sternberg's seven forms of love
sternberg believes that the relative presence or absence of these three components give rise to: different types of love (liking infatuation, empty love, romantic love, fetuous love, companionate love, consummate love)
an arrangement in which a man and a woman live together in a committed sexual relationship but are not formally married
Living together, not marries
More than 1/2 of all emerging adults cohabit during emerging adulthood. many people think that living together is a good prelude for marriage; researchers suggest they are mistaken. contrary to widespread belief, living together before marriage does not preclude problems that might arise after a wedding
What makes a relationship work?
marriage is not what it once was; it was a legal and religious arrangement that couples sought for sexual expression
Social exchange theory
the view that social behavior is a process of exchange aimed at maximizing the benefits one receives and minimizing the costs one pays
marriage between individuals who tend to be similar, commitment grows from similarity. interests, goals, ethnic backgrounds
marriage between individuals who tend to be dissimilar, attitudes, economic status, religion
going to occur, emotional sensitivity is crucial when couples disagree. demand/withdraw
a pattern of interaction where one person insists and the other retreats from conflict
consistently characteristic of ailing marriages
it is hard to overestimate the importance of the family at any time of the life span, families are our most important individual support system and problem solving system and families continue to be supportive during emerging adulthood
adults tend to recall emerging adulthood as a time when they were happiest. positive emotions increase when emerging adults have close relationships with: friends, lovers, parents, undergo successful transitions (leaving home, graduating from college, securing a good job)
not all young adults benefit from independence. some adults have too many choices and too little guidance.
the view that mental disorders are produced by the interaction of a genetic vulnerability (the diathesis) with stressful environmental factors and life events
Substance abuse disorders
emerging adulthood is the most common time for substance abuse. one in eight is addicted before age 27, substance abuse can be common interest for friends and romantic partners. most sufferers manage to put an end to abuse without professional counseling
before age 30 8% of US residents suffer from a mood disorder; major depression is the most common. can result from biological as well as psychological factors. treatment is important and effective
1/4 of US residents below the age of 25 including. post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) panic disorder. age and genetic vulnerability play a role in the development of the disorders
1% of all adults experience at least one episode of schizophrenia. disorganized and bizarre thoughts, delusions, and hallucinations. partly genetic. symptoms typically begin in adolescence. diagnosis is most common from ages 18-24
Continuity and discontinuity
most emerging adults have strengths as well as liabilities. many overcome anxieties, substance abuse, etc. through self righting, social support, and ongoing maturation
Jim and Margaret have been married for 35 years. They feel no passion and share few feelings. Sternberg would say that they have which type of love?
Generally, cohabiting adults:
Are more likely to have physical abuse in the relationship than are married couples.
How many emerging adults in the United States, Canada, northern Europe, England, and Australia cohabit during emerging adulthood?
more than half
Heterogamy refers to marriage between two people of:
Dissimilar ethnicities, interests, attitudes, and religion.