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flexion

bending a joint so the angle between the bones is decreased

extension

bending a joint so the angle between bones is increased

hyperextension

bending a part past its normal position

abduction

moving a part away from midline

adduction

moving a part toward the midline

rotation

moving a part around a central axis (head from side to side)

circumduction

moving a part in a full circle

supination

turning the hand so the palm is up

pronation

turning the hand so the palm is down

eversion

turning the foot so the sole is outward

inversion

turning the foot so sole is inside

elevation

raising a part (lifting the shoulders)

depression

lowering a part (lowering the shoulders)

protraction

moving a part forward (thrusting the jaw

retraction

moving part backward

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