The Brain

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Three parts of the Brain

Hindbrain (rhombencephalon), Midbrain (mesencephalon), & Forebrain (prosencephalon)

Hindbrain (rhombencephalon)

to parts Myelencephalon, Metencephalon

Myelencephalon

houses the medula oblongata

Medula Oblongata

where the spinal cord merges into the brain

Metencephalon

two parts Cerebellum (little brain), Pons

Cerebellum (little brain)

regulation of limb movement, balance, and posture

Pons

Bridge to join the two hemispheres of the cerebellum; connects the cerebellum with the cerebrum and with the spinal cord

Midbrain (Mesencephalon)

Connects the forebrain and the hindbrain; aids in regulating and coordinating movements

Forebrain (Prosencephalon)

two parts; Diencephalon, Telencephalon

Diencephalon

two parts; Thalmus, hypothalmus

Thalamus

relay and integration center for sensory information

Hypothalmus

Controls visceral activities, water balance, temperature, sleep and metabolic functions

Telencephalon

largest part of the human brain; Cerebrum

Cerebrum

Cerebral hemispheres (2), longitudinal fissures

Lobes of the Cerebrum

Frontal, Parietal, temporal, occipital

Frontal Lobe

Important areas: Primary Motor Strip and Boca's speech area.

Primary Motor Strip

Precentral gyrus. Area associated with common motor pathway to skeletal muscles. Works opposite side of body.

Boca's speech area

Left inferior frontal gyrus. Responsible for the motor movements required for speech

Paiental Lobe

Primary sensory strip. Left angular gyrus: comprehension of written words. works opposites side of the body.

Occipital Lobe

Contains the primary visual area and visual association areas.

Temporal Lobe

Cortical center for hearing, Wernicke's area

Wernicke's area

responsible for the integration of auditory and visual stimuli. generates input to Broca's area by way of the arcuate fasciculus

Brain Stem

term used to refer to the diencephalon, mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata

white matter of the cerebrum

subcortical white matter consists of 3 fibers: Projection, Assosiation and Commissural fibers

Projection Fibers

afferent and efferent fibers transmitting impulses to and from the cerebral cortex

Association Fibers

interconnect various cortical regions in the same hemisphere: short fibers and long fibers

short fibers

connect cells in adjacent convolutions

long fibers

connect cortical regions with in the same hemisphere. Acuate fasciculus: connects wernicke's area to Broca's area

Commisual Fibers

interconnects the corresponding cortical regions of the two hemispheres. (Corpus Callosum)

Left vs. Right Hemisphere

Left: Language, Math, Handedness, Analytical thought
Right: Art, Music, Creativity
Both: Motor and Sensory control

Cerebrospinal Fluid

Produced by the choroid plexus. Flows through a system of ventricles: lateral (2) > 3rd ventricle > 4th ventricle

ventricles

fluid filled cavities in the brain. protects boinsy, helps the endocrine system with transportation of hormones

Basal Ganglia

Masses of grey matter in the cerebrum. regulates complex motor functions: posture, locomotion, balance, inhibitory.

Inhibitory

decreases muscle tone. coordination of the motor behavior of muscle groups.

Functions of the brain

Cerebral Cortex, Cerebellum, Brain Stem, Hypothalamus, Thalamus

Cerebral Cortex

Thought, Voluntary movement, Language, Reasoning, Perception

Cerebellum

Movement, Balance, Posture

Brain Stem

Breating, Heart Rate, Blood Pressure

Hypothalamus

Emotions, Hunger, Thirst, Cicadian Rhythms, Body Temperature

Thalamus

Sensory Integration, Motor Integration

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