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Monoculture

Production of one crop

Intensive Rice Cultivation

Done by hand, wet rice is the most important source of food in South, East and Southeast Asia

Mixed Farming

Crop produced mostly to feed livestock

Large-scale Commercial Grain Production

Found in a few countries U.S, Canada, Argentina, Australia, Russia, Ukraine, and France, mostly in regions that are to dry for mixed crops and livestock

Plantation

A large farm that specializes in the commercial production of one or two crops

Transhumance

Seasonal movement of people with their livestock; typically from high pastures in the summer to lower valley/pastures in the winters.

Agribusiness

A large scale farming business that produces, processes, and distributes agricultural products.

Natural Resource

Something that is useful and and that exists independent of human activity.

Cartel

An organization formed to control the market for a particular commodity, usually by restricting supply

Temperature Inversion

A layer in the atmosphere in which relatively warm air lies above cooler air limiting vertical circulation and trapping pollutants near the surface

Primate City

Is the largest city in the country, is approximately twice the size of the second-largest city in the country, and is often the capital city of the country

Site

Natural conditions and absolute location

Situation

relative location, particularly in terms of things important to a society.

Leapfrogging

Scattered suburban growth, rather than a continuous and contiguous spreading.

Gentrification

Moving poor people out of the inner city and having middle income and upper income people moving in and restoring the old homes.

Central Business District

The "downtown" older, business center of a metropolitan area.

Feedlots for Fattening

Place where cattle go before they ago to a slaughter house, after ranchers sell them.

Characteristics of Mediterranian Agriculture

Hot, dry summers and cool, rainy winters. Most of the areas are mountainous or hilly. Most crops are for human consumption-olives, grapes, fruits, wines, and vegetables.

Effects of value added by manufacturing principle on dairying

By Transforming milk into other dairy products (butter, cheese, evaporated milk, etc) it becomes lighter and less perishable making more valuable than the raw material (the orginal milk) and produces wealth.

Privatization

In Eastern Europe, the former Soviet republics, and China, what land ownership policy or practice has done the most for increasing production?

Whether product is consumed on or off the farm

What is the most important distinction for dividing the world into agricultural regions?

Reasons agricultural practices arise in particular regions

limited knowledge of alternatives, characteristics of the physical environment, and distinctive cultural traits

Commercial Agriculture and Subsistance Agriculture

Mediterranean agriculture, shifting cultivation, and pastoral nomadism are all forms of which of the two major divisions of agriculture?

Plantation and Subsistence Agriculture

Which type of agriculture is found primarily in developing countries?

Humid Low-Latitude

Shifting cultivation is most commonly found in which climate region?

Climate

What is the most important reason why most people in North China grow crops other than wet rice?

Cultural Factors, Site Factors, and Situation Factors

The type of agriculture practiced on a commercial farm depends on which factors or practices?

Delivery Cost, Perishability, and Proximity to market

According to the von Thünen model, for what reasons are market-oriented gardens and milk producers were located in the first ring?

Commercial Grain

The United States, Russia, France, and Canada are the four large-scale producers of what type of crop?

Events lessening effect of Thomas Malthus's Theory

New Crops, incresed productivity, transportation and storage, technology

Chicken

Of al the domesticated animals, which is the most efficient transformer of grain into edible meat?

ended discrimination against farmers, end civil wars, stop subsidizing urban pop, reform landholding system

The estimated undernourished 500 million people on earth (1991) could be fed if their homelands did what?

U.S, Russia and China

What are the three large countries with coal reserves that will last a long time?

Middle East

Which part of the world has the greatest proved oil reserves in the world? -- be able to locate it on a world map.

Culture

The Native Americans of the southeastern U.S. formerly placed a high value on yaupon, a species of holly used in ritual. Which factor was most important in making yaupon a valuable resource to them?

There will be added incentive to find new deposits of the mineral

If the supply of a mineral is reduced due to excessive mining for it, what will happen in that mining industry?

Affects of NIMBY phenomenon on landfills for trash in U.S

Most people agree that land fills are needed, because the number of them has declined to fewer than 1,800 in 2002, because stricter regulations prevent new ones from opening. Old landfills were closed in many areas because of ground contamination. As land fills run out of space most people support the creation of a new facility, but have the attitude not in their back yard or area.

Coal

What is the main energy resource available for industry in the U.S. and Canada?

Oil Shale and Tar Sandstones

What are some of the unconventional sources of oil?

pluses and minuses of coal as energy source

Pluses are its abundant, provide 400 years of proven reserves, and provide U.S. with electricity.
Minuses are air pollution, land and water impacts or damages, and limited uses because it is bulky, and a solid incapable for use in engines of buses, cars, and trucks.

1/3 of Europe

What part of the electricity in Europe is produced by nuclear power?

Pluses and minuses of Hydroelectric Power

Pluses: abundant, sufficient, clean, and inexpensive. The building of the dam means that there will be flood control, drinking water, irrigation, and recreation.
Minuses: loss of farmland and animal habitat, the dam could flood usable land and displace people, it will alter aquatic life, and political restrictions sometimes apply.

Major Atmospheric Pollutants

Carbon Dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulates

Cultural Values, Level of Technology, Econonomic System

Which elements of a society contribute to the definition of a natural resource?

High demand but low supply

Applying the principle of supply and demand, what is likely to be true of wheat in Saudi Arabia?

Substitutablity

Which business practices are important in stabilizing resources prices and limiting problems caused by resource scarcity?

How hydrothermal energy is formed or utilized

Earth's internal heat in volcanic areas is used to produce steam to drive turbines.

Wood

In most developing countries, the largest proportion of energy is supplied through what means?

Coal

For electric generation in the USA, what is the main energy resource?

Natural Gas

What is the most common energy source for home use in the USA, especially for heat and hot water?

oil (gasoline and diesal fuel)

Nearly all transportation systems rely on which energy source?

Coal

The US is the leading producer of which energy fuel?

3/4 or 75%

North America and Europe account for nearly what portion of the energy consumption?

Results of Oil Crisis of 1970's

An oil embargo imposed on the U.S. from OPEC, caused gasoline supplies to dwindle in relatively developed countries, and prices at U.S. pumps soared. Another oil crises followed in 1979 as a result of a revolution in Iran, this caused rapid price increase, and abruptly halted the rise in energy use in the United States and elsewhere. This caused severe economic problems, long lines at the gas pump, some customers waiting all night for gas.

Off Shore (under the ocean floor)

Where would a newly discovered conventional oil reserve most likely be found today?

Coal

Sulfur oxides are a major component of acid rain; they come primarily from the burning of what?

Solar

What is the best potential source of energy for the world's energy needs in the future?

Hydrocarbons

Smog is created by chemical reactions that occur in the atmosphere involving N0X, sunlight, and what?

Dissolved Oxygen Concentration

The presence in water of what indicates the degree of health of a stream or lake?

Agriculture (raising crops and livestock)

What is the leading consumer and polluter of water in the USA?

positive impacts of forest on ecosystem

biodiversity, absorbing carbon dioxide, storing carbon, releasing oxygen, reduces erosion, place for habitat and recreation.

Substained Yield Management

What strategy can maintain the productivity of a resource even as it is being used?

Petrochemicals

What critical resource is an important type of ingredient in almost all plastics?

Spread of Agriculture

Most of the forest land that has disappeared from Earth over the last few centuries was due to what cause?

Structure of Urban Hierarchy

Like a pyramid with many small towns at the bottom and the number of towns decreases as they get larger so that the largest city is at the top of the pyramid

Multiple nuclei

Which urban model best describes the contemporary expansion of American metropolitan areas?

Heat Islands

Due to their modification of the atmosphere, cities have been referred to as what?

surrounded by greenbelts

What is the distinguishing characteristic of a garden city?

Radiant City

Brasilia is described as what type of city other than a forward capital city?

Urbanization

What is the term for the process whereby an increasing percentage of people live in an urban area?

Washington D.C- Boston in the USA

Define the location of the first megalopolis in the world to be identified as that type of conurbation.

Central Business District (CBD)

What is the area of the city where retail and office activities are clustered called?

reasons land values are high in CBD

Its high accessibility, competition for limited space, and the agglomeration effect

Commuting

Since so few people live in the CBD, urban areas are characterized by a high degree of what?

moderate to large amount of private land surround the house

Why were people attracted to move to the suburbs in the USA?

increase energy efficiency and lower pollution

What are the benefits of public transportation?

Multiple Nuclei Model

Which urban settlement model does the diagram on page 3 best illustrate?

Nonbasic Sector

What is the region to which any city provides services and upon which it draws for its needs called?

Conurbations

When several cities grow and merge together into vast urban areas, what are they called?

Incorporation

Process of defining a city territory and establishing a government

Nonpoint pollution

It occurs as water moves across the land or through the ground and picks up natural and human-made pollutants, which can then be deposited in lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters, and even groundwater. The water that carries nonpoint-source pollution may originate from natural processes such as rainfall or snowmelt, or from human activities such as crop irrigation or lawn maintenance.

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