Connective Tissue

85 terms by niquee12

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Loose (areolar)

What type of connective tissue proper does not have a lot of structural rigidity nor abundant fibers?

Loose (areolar)

What type of connective tissue proper is found in hypodermis of skin and under surface epithelia of respiratory system and GI tract?

Dense (regular and irregular)

What type of connective tissue proper has a much higher concentration of fibers than loose, connective tissue?

Dense regular

What type of connective tissue proper has tight bundled structures with fibers that tend to line up in parallel to provide strength?

Dense regular

What type of connective tissue proper is commonly found in ligaments and tendons?

Dense irregular

What type of connective tissue proper has a random arrangement of fibers?

Dense irregular

What type of connective tissue proper is commonly found in the dermis of skin, sheaths of tendons and nerves, and capsules of many organs?

Fibroblasts

What are largely responsible for influencing the alignment of collagen fibers?

Reticular

What type of connective tissue proper is composed of type III collagen fibers?

Reticular

What type of connective tissue proper is commonly found in lympathic organs?

Adipose

What type of connective tissue proper often form sheets of fat cells?

Adipose

What type of connective tissue proper is often found in loose areolar connective tissue?

Adipose

What type of connective tissue proper is commonly found surrounding kidney and adrenal glands?

Fibrous

What type of connective tissue proper has abundant extracellular fibrous tissue?

Elastic

What type of connective tissue proper is more elastic and found in large arteries and the trachea?

Mucous

What type of connective tissue proper is found within the umbilical cord?

Fixed cells

What type of cells end up remaining in the general area where they originated?

Fixed cell

Fibroblast is a type of (fixed/wandering) cell.

Fibroblasts

What type of cells originate locally from undifferentiated mesenchymal cells and spend their life in connective tissue?

Fibroblasts

What type of cells are responsible for providing almost all components within the ECM?

Fibroblasts

What type of cells are the most common cell in connective tissue?

Fibroblasts

What type of cells synthesize GAGs, elastin, collagen, and proteoglycans?

Fibroblasts

What type of cells synthesize multi-adhesive glycoproteins, like laminin and fibronectin?

Fibrocytes

What term is given to quiescent fibroblasts?

White

What type of adipose is unilocular for the lipid droplet?

Brown

What type of adipose has several similar-sized lipid droplets and lots of mitochondria?

Brown

Which adipose tissue plays a role in thermoregulation for newborns and hibernating animals?

Brown

Which adipose is physiologically geared toward creating non-shivering heat but is not very abundant in adult humans?

Wandering cells

What type of cells are brought into connective tissue by the blood vascular system?

Wandering cells

What type of cells are leukocytes?

Monocytes

Where do macrophages arise?

Wandering cells

What type of cells are mast cells?

Diapadesis

What is the active process of cells moving from the blood vascular system into the connective tissue?

Diapadesis

What process is the progression of cells from inside the blood vascular system to outside in to the connective tissue?

Lymphocytes

What are the only cells that may return to the blood vascular system from the connective tissue?

Hematopoetic

What kind of stem cells are cells that arise from the bone marrow?

Plasma cells

Which cells have a eccentrically placed nucleus with a clock-face appearance?

Plasma cells

Which cells arise from activated B lymphocytes and produce/secrete antibodies?

Golgi bodies

In plasma cells, juxtanuclear clear areas account for which organelle not taking up stain?

Plasma cells

Which cells are prevalent in areas prone to infection?

Macrophages

Which cells have an eccentric nucleus and act as defense elements?

Macrophages

Which cells present antigen that they have partially digested to stimulate an immune response?

Alveolar macrophages

What is a type of macrophage that can be found at the base of the lungs?

Mast cells

Which cells are large with a central nucleus?

Mast cells

Which cells stimulate immediate hypersensitivity response?

Mast cells

Which cells demonstrate metachromasia due to acidic radical content?

Mast cells

Which cells induce anaphylaxis?

Anaphylaxis

What is the massive, sudden release of a lot of potent factors from the mast cells?

Anaphylaxis

What is characterized by the contraction of smooth muscle and dilation of a lot of fluid from the capillaries due to release of pharmacologically active substances?

Proteoglycans

Provide a hydrated gel, which resists compressive forces.

Proteoglycans

Consists of a glycosoaminoglycan (GAG) bounded to a protein core.

Aggregan

What is a dominant ECM proteoglycan aggregate in cartilage?

GAG (gycosoaminoglycan)

Which protein tends to be prevalent in structures such as the interior of the eye or cartilage?

GAG

Which protein attracts sodium ions and water?

Integrin

What mediates the transmembrane linkage of ECM components and actin?

Integrin

What is anchored inside the cell to the cytoskeleton and externally via fibronectin to the ECM?

Hyaluronan

What kind of GAG binds a lot of water and can become an aggregate serving as a good model for compressive forces?

Rapid

Proteoglycans have (rapid/slow) turnover rates.

Mucopolysaccharidoses

A series of genetic disorders characterized by the inability to break down proteoglycans.

Vitamin C

What is a cofactor for proline hydroxylase?

Lysine and proline

Which amino acids are hydroxylated during collagen synthesis?

Type I

Which type of collagen composes bones and tendons?

Type III

Which type of collagen composes reticular fibers?

Type IV

Which type of collagen composes the basement membrane (attaches to integrins)?

Type V

Which type of collagen participates in type I collagen function?

Outside

Final assemblage of collagen takes place (outside/inside) the cell.

Secretory vesicles

How does pro-collagen get secreted?

Scurvy

What is a deficiency of connective tissue that may cause teeth to fall out?

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

What syndrome is associated with collagen synthesis problems?

Collagen type III

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome type 4 is associated with what deficiency?

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

What is characterized by ruptures in arteries and the intestine? (Both structures are rich in reticular fibers)

Type 6

Which type of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome is associated with cutis hyperelastica?

True

T/F: Arygophilic fibers are the only type of collagen that will stain with silver salts.

False (They ARE!!)

T/F: Reticular fibers are not arygophilic.

Reticular fibers

Common type of fibers in lymph nodes and spleen.

Elastin and fibrilin

What are the two major proteins of elastic fibers?

Fibrilin

What protein is necessary for elastin deposition ?

FBN-1

What gene is most important for fibrilin?

Marfan's

A defect in the FBN-1 gene results in what?

Marfan's

What defect is characterized by hyperelastic joints and long arms/fingers?

False (fibroblasts are derived from undifferentiated mesenchymal cells and are grouped with the fixed cells along with adipocytes, chondroblasts and osteoblasts.)

T/F Wandering cells are those derived from hematopoetic stem cells such as mast cells, red blood cells, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and monocytes.

Neutrophils

These cells are capable of phagocytosis and are usually first to arrive to an area of inflammation. They are responsible for control of a bacterial infection

Fibronectin

What protein is responsible for attachment of the cell to extracellular matrix?

Type IV collagen and laminin

What makes up the basement membrane?

***

LOOK AT: Formation of a collagen fibril

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