an inability to pay attention, often with hyperactivity and poor impulses control.
Autism Spectrum Disorders
Group of five related developmental disorders that share common core deficits or difficulties in social relationships, communication, and ritualistic behaviors; differentiated from one another primarily by the age of onset and severity of various systems; includes autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not other wise specified (PDD-NOS).
Body Mass Index
a ration that allows you to asses your body size in relation to your height and weight
Children with Exceptional Needs
Children who require help beyond what is needed by peers.
Involves a wide variety of problems in speech, language, and hearing. Includes stuttering, aphasia, dysfluency, voice disorders, cleft lip and/or palate, articulation problems, delays in speech and language, autism, and phonological disorders.
The coexistence of two or more disorders.
Developmental psychopathology perspective
a view that a wide variety of factors influences both typical and atypical paths of development
achievement on a standardize test in reading, math and or written expresion is sbustantially below that expected for her age schooling and level of intelligence
sporting activities organized, coached, or supervised by adults
having a BMI at or above 95th percentile
the ability of the brain to adapt to damage by reorganizing functions
the proportion of the population that has a particular disease at a particular time
Risk of Overweight
having a BMI between the 85th and 95th percentile
very physical, aggressive but friendly play common among boys during middle childhood
the process of finding information in memory at the desired time
memories of events of great personal importance. they are episodic memories and are often vivid and detailed
the process of recoding individual elements in memory into larger groups of information
models of cognition that are programmed on computers: output of the programs is compared to human performance
Concrete operational thought
stage of cognitive development in which children are able to think about two or more dimensions of a problem (decentered thought), dynamic transformations, and reversible operations
neural network models of cognition that view knowledge as based on patterns of activation among interconnected sets of individual units rather than stored as entire concepts
approaches to solving math problems that involve counting of the quantities
the process of forming a mental representation of information
fuzzy trace theory
the view that memory representations vary on a continuum from exact and literal to imprecise and general memory races based on the gist of the information or event
incorrect spellings that children create by sounding out words and writing the associated letters
the amount of information a person knows about a particular topic
adding or "dumping" in ideas as they come to mind; a failure to selectively organize ideas in writing
the representation of facts, images, actions, and skills that may persist over a lifetime; retrieval of information; theoretically limitless in capacity
a person's explicit knowledge about language itself and about his or her own use of it
network models of memory
models of human memory that view memory as an interconnected network of concept nodes connected by links of varying strength
stories about personal experiences that use language to inform others about the self and that provide increased self-understanding
the understanding that words are made up of smaller units of sounds; also, association of printed letters with the sounds that go with them
sets of computerized if-then statements that state the specific actions that will be taken under certain conditions
a characteristic of human memory. we store parts of events and knowledge; during recall we retrieve the stored pieces and draw inferences about the rest
bring memories from the LTM
mental representations of the way things typically occur in certain settings or for certain events
placing info in LTM
stores model of memory
a model of human memory that views information as moving through a series of storage locations, from the sensory stores to short-term store to long-term store
conscious, intentional, and controllable plans used to improve performance
strategy choice model
the idea that children solve math problems by choosing the fastest approach that they can execute accurately
a perceptual process in which people quickly and easily determine how many objects are in a small set without actually looking at them
the info currently in mind
special ed. placing children with similar learning abilities together
The degree to which a person chooses to engage in and keep trying to accomplish challenging tasks.
Individuals beliefs about why they or others succeed or fail.
Children who receive moderate numbers of both "like best" and "like least" nominations
The social and emotional environment within a classroom; the way the classroom feels to those in it.
a pattern of behavior in which the rights of others or basic social rules are violated
A general category of rule-breaking behaviors that range from frequent bouts of whining, yelling, and temper tantrums to the more severe and dangerous forms of aggression and destructiveness
Children who receive large numbers of both "like best" and "like least" nominations
A model used to understand divorce outcomes, emphasizes that a complex interaction of stressors, determine an individual child's adjustment to divorce.
The tendency to attribute success to external and uncontrollable factors.
The tendency to attribute success to internal and controllable factors.
Children who have very few peers who like them best or least.
oppositional defiant disorder
enduring pattern of hostile, defiant behavior toward authority figured in the absence of serious violations of social norms.
Role reversal in which a child assumes responsibilities usually taken care of by parents.
peer nomination technique
A polling technique used to identify categories of popular and unpopular children.
children who are mostly voted "best liked"
children's thought processes about helping others; specifically, their reasons for deciding whether to help another person.
Rejected by 3rd grade show more academic problems, but over time they are less likely to finish high school, have unstable relationships.
Nonphysical acts, such as insults or social rejection, aimed at harming that social connection between the victim and others.
children who weather adverse circumstances, function well despite challenges or threats, or bounce back from traumatic events
A model used to understand divorce outcomes; emphasizes that certain characteristics of parents (abusiveness) rather than the divorce itself cause children's negative outcomes.
the emotions people feel about themselves
the judgements people make about themselves
A prediction that comes true because people believe the prediction and behave in ways that produce the expected outcome.
way people describe themselves
Subtle effects of divorce that may not become apparent until children reach adolescence or adulthood and have difficulty forming intimate and stable relationships.
social cognition model
A model that explains how different children perceive, interpret, and respond to information in social settings.
the process in which children compare their own qualities and performances to those of their peers