What is the meaning of Reconstruction?
The period (1865-1877) during which the states had to split from the Confederacy, which were controlled by the federal government before being send to the Union.
Who were the Freedmen?
a man who has been freed from slavery.
What was the Freedmen Bureau Bill?
The bureau's main focus was to provide food and medical care, to help the freedmen to resettle, to ensure justice for the freedmen, to manage abandoned or confiscated property, to regulate labor, and to establish schools.
What were its major provisions of the Freedmen Bureau Bill?
-Gave 40 acres and mule to the freedmen
What is the difference between the 13th, 14th and 15th amendment to the United States Constitution?
13th- Abolished slavery
14th- Gave blacks citizenship
15th- Gave blacks the right to vote
By what name are the three amendments collectively known?
Civil War amendments
What were Blacks Codes and what were there major provisions?
What: Anti black laws passed by southern legislators during reconstruction.
-Provisions blacks were prohibited from doing the following: owning property, voting, serving on juries, testifying against whites.
What is the difference between Jim Crow laws and the Black Codes?
-Black Codes were instituted in the South as a means of regulating the activities of slaves. Black Codes were passed by southern legislatures to regulate what ex-slaves could and could not do.
-Jim Crow laws deprived blacks of civic and political participation, established segregated educational and transportation facilities, and forbade intermarriage between blacks and whites.
What did the Civil Rights Act of 1866 address?
The Civil Rights Act of 1866 is a federal law in the United States declaring that everyone born in the U.S. and not subject to any foreign power is a citizen, without regard to race, color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude.
What did the Civil Rights Act of 1875 address?
The Act guaranteed that everyone, regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude, was entitled to the same treatment in "public accommodations" (i.e. inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement).
Why is the election of 1876 regarded as an important milestone in the
history of the United States?
The United States presidential election of 1876 was one of the most disputed presidential elections in American history. Samuel J. Tilden of New York outpolled Ohio's Rutherford B. Hayes in the popular vote, and had 184 electoral votes to Hayes' 165, with 20 votes uncounted. These 20 electoral votes were in dispute: in three states (Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina), each party reported its candidate had won the state, while in Oregon one elector was declared illegal (as an "elected or appointed official") and replaced. The 20 disputed electoral votes were ultimately awarded to Hayes after a bitter legal and political battle, giving him the victory.
It officially ended the Reconstruction in the south.
What was the issue in Plessy v Ferguson (1896)?
Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896), is a landmark United States Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the United States, upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in private businesses (particularly railroads), under the doctrine of "separate but equal".
What was the Supreme Court's decision in this case?
The decision was handed down by a vote of 7 to 1 with the majority opinion written by Justice Henry Billings Brown and the dissent written by Justice John Marshall Harlan. Associate Justice David Josiah Brewer did not participate in the decision.[further explanation needed] "Separate but equal" remained standard doctrine in U.S. law until its repudiation in the 1954 Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education.
What is the difference between a Panic and a Depression?
-Depression is a long term crises, with devalued currencies,unemployment, and economic chaos.
-Panic is a sudden event, for example: a stock market crash or a run on the banking system.It happens in a 48 hour period,or less.
What kind a President was Woodrow Wilson?
-US president in late 1890's and 1900's progressive era
-received degree at John Hopkins
-effective leader(very well spoken)
-became president of Princeton in 1902
What was Herbert Hoover's background?
-was under Coolidge & Harding
-he tried to forge business and government
- under him, the Department of Commence was vital in promoting conferences encouraging the formation of trade associations.
-promoted businesses, and also issued reports on improving production.
-Distinguished himself as an administer for food relief in Europe.
Why did Herbert Hoover fail as president?
As the U.S failed, American people looked to Hoover for leadership, many were starving, homeless and dying but Hoover refused to believe or give any government assistance to those who needed it. He believed that the people could help themselves and he also referred to the Great Depression as "a temporary hault in the prosperity of a great people." He also feared that by giving American people assistance it would inflate the federal budget and reduce the self-respect of the Americans reciving the aid. So instead of getting involved and helping out Hoover remained optimistic and kind of just let the people suffer.
What were some of the characteristics of the depression of 1929-1933?
-Unemployment and poverty
-Breakdown of families
-Soaring high school dropout rates (2 to 4 million)
Why is it called the Great Depression?
A depressed economy is characterized by severe decline in business activity, high unemployment and excess supply. Generally, the public is uncertain about the repercussions of the market and displays signs of fear or panic.
What is the difference between a recession and a depression?
-Recessions is period of general economic decline.
-Depression is typically used when the market is much worse than a typical recession
What was Hoover's relationship with African Americans?
He did not care much about African Americans. Hoover wanted to keep blacks out of the democratic party. Voting and Lynching were problems for African Americans. African American protested for an anti-lynching law but was denied. He refused to put any blacks in federal positions.
What was Franklin Roosevelt's background?
- Assistant Secretary of the Navy under Woodrow Wilson for 8 years.
-Got polio in 1921
-One of the main factor he emphasized were farmers and assistances of unemployment.
-As governor of NY, he helped with various programs that give assistance to unemployed people, got public jobs and land reclamation.
- He surrounded himself with Brain Trust (lawyers, and professors)
-In the election of 1932, he dominated 57% of popular votes.
What were major issues in the 1932 presidential election?
- stock market crash years before(1929)
Which amendment is called the Lame Duck Amendment?
What was the purpose of this amendment? (Lame Duck Amendment)
The section of the Amendment essentially says the in the event of a disaster where both the President and Vice President were unable to lead, it is the House of Representatives that gets to select who is next in line for succession. Currently, it is the Speaker of the House. (It lays down the rules for the beginnings and endings of elected officials' terms.)
What was the difference in the composition of the cabinet of Herbert
Hoover and Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR)?
Belief in laissez faire, small government, no government intervention, high tariff, balanced budget, cutting taxes, isolationist, inflexible, slow to change, economic law is natural law, belief in boom+bust cycle,
no direct aid, relief as it destroys moral value, pay for surplus (Agricultural Act 1929), and trickle-down economics opposed anything linked to socialism and communism.
Big government, government is responsible for social security, welfare state, repeals prohibition, Used the Mrs. and radio to keep in touch with people, unbalanced budget, inflation, off the gold-standard, low tariff
higher taxes, pragmatic and flexible
economic laws man-made and possible to change them, direct relief instead of trickle-down, Agricultural Adjustment Act to raise farm income, pay farms not to grow
Keynsian economics - gov spends more than it takes for direct relief.
Why was FDR reluctant to actively seek the votes of African Americans
Because he did not want to lose the white votes.
By what popular name was FDR's administration known?
New Deal Administration
How did he get this name?(FDR)
During his Inauguration Speech.
What were some of the major programs that were implemented during FDR's first administration?
Programs: (relief) to the unemployed, reform of business and financial practices, and recovery of the economy during The Great Depression.
What issues did the Economic Bill Rights address?
-Right to protection from fear of old age
-accident and unemployment
-the right to adequate medical care
- the right to a good education
-the right of every family to a decent home
-the right to a "useful and remunerative job."
Which of FDR's programs hurt African Americans the most?
-New Deal Administration because it prolonged joblessness for millions, and black people were especially hard hit.
-The Wagner Act (1935) harmed blacks by making labor union monopolies legal. Economists Thomas E. Hall and J. David Ferguson explained: "By encouraging unionization, the Wagner Act raised the number of insiders (those with jobs) who had the incentive and ability to exclude outsiders (those without jobs).
- The Agricultural Adjustment Act(AAA) 1933 aimed to help farmers by cutting farm production and forcing up food prices. Less production meant less work for thousands of poor black sharecroppers. In addition, blacks were among the 100 million consumers forced to pay higher food prices because of the AAA.
CCC- Basically give jobs to all white folks.
What are the two important African American goals did FDR fail to address?
-Discrimination in housing and public services
Were any African Americans in FDR's cabinet?
Yes, It was supported by the first lady Eleanor Roosevelt. African Americans wanted some form of representation which had not been provided for them. This need was seen by the administration at the time and prominent individuals from the African American community were chosen unofficially to represent the needs of African Americans.
If so, who were some of them, what were their roles in the cabinet?
-Robert Weaver; race relations adviser
-William Hastie; Department of the Interior
-Mary Mclead; National Youth Administration
How did Eleanor Roosevelt (the president's wife) feel about equality for African Americans?
She worked toward justice and equality for African Americans, consistently objecting to the hypocrisy of American political discourse that criticized Nazi racism abroad while condoning racism towards African Americans at home.
How did she demonstrate this?(Eleanor Roosevelt)
She had a strong passion for equality in the United States.
How did white members of FDR's cabinet feel about equal opportunity for African Americans?
They did not want equality opportunity for African Americans.
What were some specific anti-black effects of the FDR's administration?
What was the relationship between FDR and his Vice President, Harry S. Truman?
FDR does not really like Truman because Truman did not tell him his specific plans.
What kind of president was Harry Truman?
-Extremely self-controlled, consistent, detail-oriented, and very well read.
-As President, he read every thing recommended for him to read, and made lists of questions that needed answering for someone who never attended college, he was extremely well-read and knowledgeable.
What was his relationship with the labor unions, and Southern Democrats?
He have a very good relationship with the union, before most of unions are voting for republicans.
What was his campaigns stops called?
What was the name nickname of Truman's administration?
What goals did Truman set out to accomplish, as president?
-Using the Atomic Bombs on Japan which probably ended the war much faster than if he had not.
-Integrating the US military in the late 40's.
-Sending troops to Korea after North Korea invaded South Korea.
-Beating Thomas Dewey in 1948, mostly remembered for holding up the paper that said "Dewey Wins" or something like that and laughing about it.
What was his position on Civil Rights?(Truman)
He wanted equality for Blacks!
Was Truman ever reelected president?
Yes, in 1948.
What were some examples in which Truman used his executive authority to show his commitment to equality for African Americans?
-One major thing Truman did was to desegregate the Armed Forces. He did this as an Executive Order so that he could bypass opposition in Congress from the South.
-And in companies that did business with the federal government. Under Truman, the Supreme Court ordered some southern states to admit blacks to state supported professional schools because the segregated medical and legal training they offered blacks was not equal in quality to that provided for whites.
Who was the name of the scandal that was associated with Truman's administration?
Five percenters scandal - give out contracts to their friends, and in return received 5%
How did rulings of Supreme Court during the period 1944-1948 help promote equal opportunity for African Americans?
It had a huge impact in promoting equality among african americans for years to come.
What were some of these cases?
Smith v. Allright (1944)
Morgan v. Virginia (1950)
Shelley v. Kramer (1948)
What was Eisenhower like as president?
-He was a republican
-running mate: Richard Nixon
-Good at balancing the federal budget, and ending the Korean war
-nickname is "ike"
What was his position on Civil Rights?
Eisenhower did work for the Civil Rights Act of 1957. It did not do as much as he would have liked, but it did lay the groundwork for the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
What was the Little Rock incident?
Eisenhower did not do a great job with the Little Rock incident. He was too slow to bring federal forces in to get control of the situation.
What was his personal feeling about this incident?
He did not care about Blacks, but he wanted to maintain order.