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Thomas Jefferson

Strong believer in strict construction, weak government, and antimilitarism who was forced to modify some of his principles in office

Albert Gallatin

Swiss-born treasury secretary who disliked national debt but kept most Hamiltonian economic measures in effect

John Marshall

Federalist Supreme Court justice whose brilliant legal established the principle of judicial review

Marbury v. Madison

Ruling based on a "midnight judge" case that established the right of the Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional

Samuel Chase

Federalist Supreme Court justice impeached by the House in 1804 but acquitted by the Senate

Pasha of Tripoli

North African leader who fought an undeclared war with the United States from 1801 to 1805

Napoleon Bonaparte

French ruler who acquired Louisiana from Spain only to sell it to the United States

Robert Livingston

American minister to paris who joined James Monroe in making a magnificent real estate deal

Toussaint L'Ouverture

Gifted black revolutionary whose successful slave revolution indirectly led to Napoleon's sale of Louisiana

William Clark

Young army officer who joined Jefferson's personal secretary in exploring the Louisiana Purchase and Oregon country

Aaron Burr

Former vice-president, killer of Alexander Hamilton, and plotter of mysterious secessionist schemes

Chesapeake Affair

British attack on American sailors that aroused angry demands for war

Embargo Act of 1807

Restrictive trade policy that hurt Britain but hurt American shippers and farmers even more

Tecumseh

Shawnee leader who organized a major Indian confederation against U.S. expansion

William Henry Harrison

Military leader who defeated Tecumseh's brother, "The Prophet," at the Battle of Tippecanoe

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