Organic Molecules

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Organic Molecules

molecules that contain carbon, are complex, and are produced by organisms; carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acid

Tetravalent

a molecule that can make 4 bonds

Complexity

describing a molecule that is more complex than Methane (CH4)

Monosaccharides

simple sugars; glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose, deoxyribose

Glucose/Fructose/Galactose/Ribose/Deoxyribose

monosaccharides that contains Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen

Isomers

compounds with the same formula but different structure

Nucleic Acid

complex substance, such as RNA and DNA, present in living cells

Maltose

glucose + glucose

Sucrose

glucose + fructose

Lactose

glucose + galactose

Condensation Reaction

a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to produce water or another simple molecule

Cellular Respiration

process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen

Hydrolysis

a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds; C12H22O11+H2O=2C6H12O6

Disaccharides

Carbohydrates that are made up of two monosaccharides

Polysaccharides

Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides

Polymers

large compound formed from combinations of many monomers

Functional Groups

parts of molecules that give those molecules certain characteristics; hydroxyl groups, carboxyl groups, amino groups, and phosphate groups

Hydroxyl Group

a functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols, -OH

Carboxyl Group

a functional group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group, -COOH

Amino Group

a functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; can act as a base in solution, accepting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of +1, -NH2

Phosphate Group

a functional group consisting of a phosphorus atom covalently bonded to four oxygen atoms, PO4

Starch

polysaccharide that is the main food energy source for human beings

Cellulose

polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that reinforces plant-cell walls

Chitin

polysaccharide that forms part of the exoskeleton of arthropods and other organisms, such as insects, crustaceans, fungi, and some algae

Glycogen

polysaccharide which is the stored glucose energy in liver and muscles

Lipids

fats, oils, and waxes, nonpolar molecules that are not soluble or mostly insoluble in water

Fatty Acid

an organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils, can be saturated or unsaturated

Saturated

describing a fatty acid that has only single bonds between carbon atoms

Unsaturated

used of a compound (especially of carbon) containing atoms sharing more than one valence bond, liquid

Hydrogenation

adding hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids, forcing the liquid to solidfy

Partial Hydrogenation

moving one hydrogen atom to the other side of the molecule creating trans fat

Triglycerides

Large fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acid and one part glycerol

Glycerol

with fatty acids, makes up the building blocks of lipids

Phospholipids

a lipid that contains phosphorus and two fatty acids that is a structural component in cell membranes, creates barrier from water because phosphorous is hydrophilic, while fatty acids are hydrophobic

Steroids

a type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached

Carbohydrates

organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the proportion of H:O-2:1

Nitrogen

the most common gas in the atmosphere, metabolic poison

Excretory System

the system that removes Nitrogen from your body and controls water balance

Enzymes

protein substances that speed up chemical reactions

Amino Acids

building blocks of proteins

Insulin

smallest Amino Acids

Proteins

nutrients that help build and maintain body tissues, made up of Amino Acids, make up our appearence AND how we function

Peptide Bond

covalent bond formed between amino acids, carbon and nitrogen

Dipeptide

2 amino acids bonded together

Denatured

when a protein loses its natural shape

R Groups

determine chemical behavior of amino acids & give different proteins different shapes

Primary Structure

the first level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids.

Secondary Structure

the second level of protein structure referring the regular local patterns of coils or folds of a polypeptide chain

Pleated Sheet

the folded arrangement of a polypeptide in a protein's secondary structure.

Alpha Helix

the secondary structure coiling of a polypeptide chain

Tertiary Structure

the third level of protein structure referring to the overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain

Quaternary Structure

the fourth level of protein structure referring to the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits

Polypeptides

long chains (polymers) of amino acids

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

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