3 Categories of Sentence Correction
1)Grammar 2)Meaning 3) Concision
Wordy: BEING EXCITED about ther upcoming graduation...
Better: EXCITED about her upcoming graduation...
-the word being almost always signals redundancy on the gmat
every sentence must have a Subject and a Verb.
in every sentence, the subject and the verb must make logical sense together. they must also agree in number.
Subject and Verb must both exist
if a sentence is missing the subject or the verb, the sentence is a fragment.
make sure that the sentence has a subject and a working verb.
Subject and verb must agree in number
The GMAT tends to hide the subject so that you are undsure whether the subject is singular or plural.
The key to making subject and verbs agree in GMAT sentences is to find the subject that goes with a particular verb, and ignore all words that are NOT the subject.
Eliminate the Middlemen to reveal the subject
the GMAT tries to hide the subject by inserting words between the subject and the verb and even adds a significant number of words in front of the subject you want.
1) Prepositional Phrases - of, in, to, for, with , on , by, at, from followed by a noun or pronoun.
ex. Near Galway, the houses on the road to spiddle is/are gorgeous.
subject is houses, and correct verb is are
2)Subordinate Clauses as middlemen - who, which, when. they modify other parts of the sentence and act as big adjectives or big adverbs and even big nouns.
And vs. Additive Phrases
only the word and can change a singular subject into a plural one. Singular subjects followed by additive phrases remain singular subjects.
ex.- Joe and his friends are going to the beach.
additive phrases- including, together, along with, in addition to, etc.
or, either.. or, & neither... nor
find the noun closest to the verb and make sure that the verb agrees in number with this noun.
ex. Neither the coach nor the players are going to the beach.
Neither the players nor the coach is going to the beach.
*when the words either or netiher are in a sentence alone(without or or nor), they are considered singular)
are almost always singular. a noun that looks singular and refer to a group of people or objects. ex- agency, army, audience, baggage, equipment, furniture
not specific about the thing to which it refers. these are mostly singular except for SANAM. ex- anyone, anybody, everyone, everybody, noone, nobody, whatever, whoever, etc..
Some, Any, None, All, More/Most are 5 indefinite pronouns that can be either singular or plural depending on context of sentence.
Each and Every
any subject preceded by each or every requires by singular verb.
ex. Each of these shirts is pretty.
Quantity words and phrases
the phrase THE number of takes a singular verb, but A number of takes a plural verb.
Subject Phrases and Clauses
sometimes the subject of a sentence is an -ING phrase or even a whoel clause. This sort of subject is always singular and requires a singular verb form.
ex. Having good friends IS a wonderful thing.
Whatever they want to do IS fine with me.
GMAT attempts to confuse you by putting the subject after the verb. If in doubt, try flipping the word order so that the subject precedes the verb.
Uncertain: Pong is a classic game from which have/has descended many current computer pastimes.
Flip it!: Pong is a classic game from which many current computer pastimes have descended.
Right: Pong is a classic game from which HAVE descended many current computer pasttimes.
If in doubt, think singular
singular verb forms tend to be more confusing so if you cannot remember a particular rule, most like its singular.